Warrior Weasel

Translation Augsburg Tailor's Text 1516 part 5 - The Flügel Rock

Flugel rock

This is an Albrecht Dürer image of a woman of Nuremburg circa 1500.  She is wearing a specific kind of gown with flowing sleeves called a "Flügel Rock".  It more or less means that the gown had wings or sails.  The Augsburg test has specific instructions for the tailors who were making the gown.  From these directions I take it that the gown was made with cloth that had a definite nap.

Item das ist ain flygel rock / der
zw kompt 10 ele(n) vnd mach das hind(er) thayll lang
4 ele(n) vnd das hinder thayl weytt 7 ele(n) / vnd das fo(rder)
tayll 3 ele(n) vnd 1 fiertayl lang vnd die weytte 5 ele(n)
vnd mach den fligel lang(en) 3 ele(n) vnd dy fligel halben
(ip) weytten vnde(n) der rock hat / kainerbel / Item du
Müst dich auch fyrseche(r) das an dem rock der strich
aller vnd sich gang / vnd das (ip) leytt auffgewo(r)ffen
vnd schneyd das (ip) in d(er) mitt ab vnd das im der
tuch nit v(er)kert werdt / Item du müst dich auch
fyrseche(r) das du auff 11 elen(n) ain ornat machest

Item this is a flugel rock / there
to comes 10 ells and make the back part length
4 ells and the back width 7 ells / and the front
piece 3 ells and 1 quarter long and the width 5 ells
and make the flugel (sleeve) 3 ells and the flugels half
the width that the bottom of the gown is / no sleeves / Item
you must take care that the gown's nap must go the same
and that the it lays folded and cut it up the middle and
that the cloth is not upside down / Item you must also
be careful that from the from 2 ells you make an "ornat" (guard?)

Warrior Weasel

Translation Augsburg 1516 Tailor's Test Part 4

I've asked for help on some of the abbreviations I am not quite getting.  So I will come back and update when I know what the missing piece is.  This section is for a poor man's outfit and a farmer's gown.

das ist ains arme(n)
Manss kläyd mant(e)l vnd zypful* vnd kappe(n) vnd hossen
Darzu kom(m)pt 6 ele(n) vnd mach den ma(n)tel lang 2 ele(n)
vnd mach den kappe(n) lang 3 fiertail vnd lass die
zypfel nebe(n) der kappe(n) auss hergan(n) / vnd we(nn) du Im
auff dem gradt von ain and(er) schneydst so wyrt er
langtz 2 elen(n) vnd iii fiertail / das ist ain elen
vund ain fiertail / darauss mach hossen(n) on ain

This is a poor
man's outfit, coat and cap and hood and hosen
Thereto comes 6 ells and make the coat 2 ells long
and make the hood 3/4 long and let the
be from next to the hood / and when you
cut it out to size so it will be one ell
and a quarter / there is (still) one ell
and one quarter / from it make hosen without
a seat

das ist ain bawre(n) rock / darzw kompt 6
elen(n) vnd mach den rock lang ii elen(n) vnd
Die örbel auch so Lang Wie sie vor dyr stand vnd gretzss
vmb vnd vmb 1 fiertail in das ( ) Item du müst dich
auch fyrseche(n) das du on ain fiertail 6 elen(n) zÚ dem
rock brauchest In / Item des seind die örbel vnd dz schmall
kert auff dy achsel

This is a farmer's gown / thereto comes 6
ells and make the gown 2 ells long and
the sleeves also as long as what was before stated and cut irregularly
around and around 1 quarter in the ( ) Item you must yourself
also be careful that you use less one quarter of the 6 ells for
the gown / Item this is for the sleeves and for the small
turn on the shoulder

* a zipfel is a conical cap with a tassel on the end

Warrior Weasel

Translation Augsburg 1516 Tailor's Test Part 3

das is ain fraue[n] schawb darzw
kompt 7 elen [symbol] / mach die schaube[n]
lang ii fiertayl vnd
ii elen / das hind thayll weyt vnd 6 elen bloss vnd das
forder 5 ele[n] vnd die ermel 1 fiertayl vnd 1 ele[n] lang
das hind stuck findestü nebe[n] dem örbel / vnd schneyd die
schawbe[n] auss ain and[er] wie sie vor dir stett [Item] du müst
dich fyrsetze[n] das die schawben[n] machest auss 7 ele[n]

This is a Woman's schaube (a coat) thereto
comes 7 ells [?whole]/ make the schaube
2 quarters and 2 ells long / and the back side wide and just 6 ells and the
front 5 ells and the sleeves 1 quarter and 1 ell long
you should find the back section next to the sleeves / and cut the
schaube apart how it is before given [Item] you must yourself
put forward how the schaube is made out of 7 ells

Notes:  There is a symbol that may signify omnis - meaning whole or general.  I'm not convinced this is what it means yet.  In 1516 a schaube is a coat.  I wonder if the bit about cutting between the arms means that this is a circular type pattern and that the tailor needed to locate the spot where the sleeves would attach to fit it properly, or alternatively if there might have been a yoke piece.

Das ist ain gesöllen klayd / darzw kompt 7 ele[n]
mach den[n] rock lang 2 elen[n] / mach die vorder[n] thayll vor
ne[n] 3 elen[n] / das hinder on ain[n] fiertail 4 elen[n] weyt
vnd mach das hinder bristlein 3 fiertail lang
tayll den rock auss wie er vor diz stett / lass die
Kappe[n] vorner[r] am örmel herauff gen[n] vnd nim and[er] halb
fiertayl vnd 1 ele[n] volgemesse[n] /

This is an journeyman's clothing / thereto come 7 ells
make the gown 2 ells long / make the forward part up front 3 ells
the back less a quarter 4 ells wide
and make the back bodice 3 quarters long
piece the gown out as was previously set down / let the
hood in front of the sleeves go up and take the other ell
and half quarter (1/8) ell carefully measured

Warrior Weasel

Translation Augsburg 1516 Tailor's Test Part 2

This finishes page one and moves on to page 2.  The description of the sleeve onto the doublet gown is interesting.  The cloak instructions, I think, refer to how to piece the pattern together and how to work the layout by piecing it by laying the remnants next to the main piece.  I had trouble with what looks to be schlauen - which can mean smart, crafty etc.   These could be fun to try to puzzle out on paper.

Das ist ain Wamme[n] rock / Darzw
kompt 6 elen[n] minder 1 fiertail vnd mach in
lang 1 fiertail vnd ii elen[n]/ er galt ins gar auff
die achsel / die örmel kom[m]et obe[n] darein / die örbel
erlangere[n]t / jn umb 1 halb fiertail vnd mach dy
örbel 1 ele[n] lang vnd dy gestalt ii fiertel lang
so fügen sich dy stückel darein / vnd af darzw
kommpt 8  ele[n] vnd leg 5 doppelt / vnd auff den[n]
andere[n] 2 ele elen[n] / maches sy wie es vor die stett

This is a doubleted gown / thereto
comes 6 ells less one quarter and make in
length 1 quarter and 2 ells / it is straight on
the shoulder / the sleeve comes up into it / the sleeves
gain / in circumference one half quarter (1/8)  and make the
sleeve 1 ell long and the back [with cut on collar] 2 quarters long
so place the [pattern] pieces thereon / and for this
comes 8 ells and lay 5 doubled / and from the
other 2 ells / is made as it is before stated

Das ist ain Mant[e]l auff alle[n] nette[n] schlauen vnd
nim[m] darzw 9 elen auf vnd mach in 3 elen[n]
Lang vnd lass die stück auff auss / dy mitte[n] gan si dir
unde[n] dara[n] so fugt /

This is a cloak with all crafted seams and
take thereto 9 ells and make in 3 ell
length and leave the [patterned] piece on it / on the middle it goes you
thus put under next to that

Warrior Weasel


arithmetic problem

A 17th century word math problem using fabric (velvet & linen)  from Aritmetica Oder die Kunst zurechnen (1618).  It isn't the first one I have found - there are others from the 16th century too.  There is probably useful information in there.  However I might just let it stay right there for braver souls!  Looking at that made my head hurt! LOL

Warrior Weasel

Translation Augsburg 1516 Tailor's Test Part 1

Original here:

This is the first half of the first page.  It includes the introduction and the first piece of the quiz - the dancing gown.  In looking at it closer I agree with Marion that it is likely to be a woman's gown, but mostly because of the inclusion of the word for bodice - brustlin - which would be unusual to see in context of a man's garment.  I am translating pretty literally but also making some order/minor meaning manipulations to make this more understandable to English readers. 

Das ist die künst vnd d brieff darin da statt geschriben
wie ain schneyd knecht so lerne[n] wa[n] er fürstan[n]
will / vnd mayste[r] werd wil / so gibt ma[n] im vil seltzamer[n]
stück für zü schneyd / das find er alles hi jn disem brieff
vnd Ich hanns bader / vnd six Miellich  bayd schneyder
zw augspurg In d statt / vnd Ich Simprecht Kröll
weber vnd burger zw Augspurg / hab[n] den brieff
abzaychnit inss hanns kaüffmans hauss obdem reyh
im obere[n] gemach / da habe[n] sy sich gmusterert im 1516

This is the art and the letter therein is written the process
of how a tailor's servant so learns and when he will understand
and wants to become a master / so one gives to him many curious
pieces pertaining to cut / it is all found here in this letter
and I, Hanns Bader / and Six Miellich both tailors
from Augsburg in the city / and I Simprecht Kröll
weaver and citizen of Augsburg / have the letter
scribed in Hans Kaufmann's house where sitting
in the upper chamber / there I drew this in1516

Das ist ain dantz rock / darzw kompt zeh[n]enhalb
elen[n] af vnd mach das hindthayll lang 3 elen
on das brystlin / vnd mach das hind thayll weyt
.7. elen[n] vnd 5 elen[n / vnd mach das prüstlin obe[n]
Dem örbel. vnnd mach dy örbel .1. fiertayl vnd .1.
elen[n] lang /

This is a dancing gown / towards for it get ten and a half
ells and make the back part 3 ells long
not including the bodice / and make the back part
7 ells and 5 ells wide / and make a bodice on the top
to the sleeve. and make the sleeves 1 quarter and 1
ell long.

Here's a picture of an Augsburg dance in 1500.  The dancing gown given here is probably very similar to those seen here (and seems to have a train from the length of the back given):


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Warrior Weasel

First read through the Augsburg 1516 Tailor's test

I've transcribed the first page  http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/cpg109/0165?sid=07ed36fe5e7345e031b9568402f6f83e nd have read through this several times.  As a synopsis, the first paragraph is an introduction to the test, and who will do the testing of the candidate.  The general information asked on this test is the amount of fabric needed, and the layout of the pattern length and widthwise.  There are some basic measurements given for length and width. There aren't any fabrics named.

The garments in the test:
Dantz Rock (dancing gown - this may be for a man) - takes 10 1/2 ells
Vammes Rock (a 'doublet gown') takes 5 and 3/4 ells
Mantl (a cloak) takes 9 ells
Frawen Schawb (a woman's coat-gown) takes 7 ells
Gesellen Klayd - includes a rock and kappen and gesess (journeyman's clothes - a gown and hood and knee length hosen) takes 7 ells
Armen mann's klayd - includes a mantl with zipfel, kappen, hossen or a gesess (poor man's clothes - a cloak, a hood, hosen or a knee length hosen) takes 6 ells
Bawren rock includes a rock and gesess (farmer's clothing with a gown and knee length hosen) takes 5 ells
Flygel Rock (a woman's gown with hanging sleeves from the upper arms) takes 10 ells
Rock wenn du zwu Kyrchen gann incudes mantel and 'barhosen' (men's gown to wear when going to church includes a cloak and a pair of hosen) takes 8 1/2 ells
Pfaffen Rock (a priest's robe) takes 10 ells and includes a kappen (hood/cowl)
Frantzösistcher Mantl (a French cloak) takes 7 ells
Frauen Rock von 8 Stück ( a women's gown of 8 pieces i.e. a gored gown) takes 10 ells

So next it will be seeing if I can understand the stream of consciousness in the measurements/cutting layouts.  I'll need to also indentify the length of the ell, but the front piece of the woman's gown measurement should give me a pretty good idea.  With more study I might change up some of the descriptions above, but I was pleased that I could just sit down and read it.  For me it represents an advancement in skill level.  Sometimes it's hard to tell if you are making progress.  I do know 10 years ago I could probably make out one in 20 words, and now I can't make out immediately about one in 20.  Still have a way to go though :-)  I wonder if school offers a paleography class?
Warrior Weasel

The 1394 Parisian Saucier and Mustard Maker's Statutes

This is from pages 458-459 in Meilleurs Dissertations, Notices et Traités Particuliers relatifs a l'Histoire de France, volume 19 compiled in 1838.  Sadly it seems to be missing the penalty part, but  some might find the ingredients listed of interest.  I've translated it from the French for you.

That any person who takes upon himself the making of mustard, will make wholesome mustard without spoilage, without any musty smell and also with good vinegar, and is not to have the audacity to expose it for sale until that it is a day of rest.

Item.  And whoever engaged in making the sauce called cameline, that he make it with good cinnamon, good ginger, of good nails of cloves,of good grains of paradise, of good bread and good vinegar; that all will be wholesome and clean without reproach, under the pain of the penalty below stated.

Item.  And whoever makes the sauce called genet, that he should make it of good and sweet almonds, of good ginger, and good verjus wine that is wholesome and clean.

Item.  And whoever makes as well verte (green) sauce, that he make it of good ginger and good verjus that is wholesome and clean; the green of the parsley is of good strength, and when it is any season where parsley can not be found, then it should be the juice (green) of wheat greens; for the ability to serve said sauce, it should be mixed with wholesome bread and clean according to the quality of the sauce, under the penalty below stated.

Item.  At touching upon all the other manners of the other sauces, to wit, poivre jaunit (yellow pepper), poivre noire (pepper black), galommer, rapie sauce and others, that they are done in a good manner, etc.

Warrior Weasel

Könighofen Tailor's Exam Part Five (The end)

Some interesting bits in here -

On women's and maid's clothing

Question:  Item how much for a fitted bodice (leiblein)

Velvet?  Answer:  one ell, and a half quarter (1/8) according to design.
Atlas?  Answer:  one ell according to lay out.
Taffeta?  Answer:  one and one quarter ell according to lay out.
Borschat?  Answer:  one ell according to lay out.

Question:  how much is required for a woman's undergown

Atlas?  Answer:  14 ells
Taffeta?  Answer:  16 ells
Borschat?  Answer:  14 ells
Arlas?  Answer:  12 ells
Cloth of London?  Answer:  5 ells 7 quarters long 12 ells wide
Dutch cloth?  Answer:  6 ells in above given length and width
Combed wool cloth?  Answer:  7 ell long and wide

Question:  Item how much for such a gown to trim it with 3 borders

Cloth of London?  Answer:  One and a half ell according to layout.
Borschat?  Answer:  four halves of an ell according to layout.
Arlas?  Answer:  Three ells according to layout.

Question:  How much for a trim around such a gown, that is a quarter (ell) high [i.e. above the hem], and over the finger's width (schreckle daumen) wide.

London cloth and the like?  Answer:  6 halves of an ell according to lay out.
Rastatt, Limburg cloth and the like?  Answer: 7 halves of an ell according to lay out.
Combed wool cloth?  Answer:  8 halves of an ell according to lay out.

Item if one wants, so after the above one may ask about bodies (müdern), short and long, what for each the occasion and purpose is to be worn, rather than to ask about all the pieces, it would be long and tedious.

of required pieces - the fourth part of the materials: on pile and a number of of the necessary things

Question:  Item to judge where to apply the material to be used and the where the pattern belongs on each part of the clothing, be it from gold or silver, velvet or silk fabric,

gold and silver pieces and cloth?  Answer:  the pattern (blumen) and the leaves all on the top of the gown and the sleeves.
velvet?  Answer:  all the same [as above]
Damask and the like?  Answer:  all for the bottom part of the gown and trimming.

Question:  What is to be done if the silk trim is very frayed? 
Answer:  One must size (beleimen) [glue/lime/size] it on the inner side.

Question:  On the nap of woolen cloth: which way does the nap go towards on such shorn woolen cloth on a garment?

On a gown, where it is whatever style you like?  Answer:  on the front part and the sleeves downward and on the back part upwards.
On hose and hoods? Answer:  All upwards.
On cloaks, be they for men or women?  Answer:  Forward side down, and on the behind upwards.

For the servants, leather jerkins (leder koller) are quite common, and if the candidate does not have much orientation to this issue, however it would be well that one knows how to design such jerkins.

Now after asking all these before given questions to the candidate, and he responded with sufficient standing with answers and designs, so should the Headmaster see to him such that his craft is openly notarized and is allowed customers and to h further do such trade with him after the guild rights, for which he shall be accepted composed in a suitable letter.

Where the candidate did not pass, as heard and deserved, so then should the testing master let the Headmaster know of the decision of him so that he can direct himself accordingly.