Part One Thursday The River Procession to the Tower
In the month of Maie (1533), THE Kinges Highnesse addressed his letters to the maior and communalitie of London, signifying unto them that his pleasure was to solemnize the coronation of his most deare and welbeloved wife, Queene Anne, at Westminster, on Whitson-daie next ensuing, willing them to make preparation, as well to fetch her Grace from Greenewich to the Tower by water, as to see the cittie garnished with pageants in places accustomed, for the honour of her Grace, when shee shoulde be conveyed from the Tower to Westminster.
Whereupon a common councell was called, and commaundment given to the Haberdashers, of which craft the maior was, that they shoulde prepare a barge for the bachelors, with a master and a foyste, garnished with banners, like as they use when the maior is presented at Westminster on the morrowe after the feast of Saint Simon and Jude. Also all other crafts were commaunded to prepare barges, and to set up all such seemely banners and bannerets, as they had in their halles, or could get to furnish their said barges; and every barge to have minstrels. According to which commaundment great preparation was made for all things necessarie for such a noble triumph.
The twentie ninth daie of Maie, being Thursdaie, the maior and his brethren, all in scarlet, and such as were knights, had collars of esses, and the residue having great chaines, and the councell of the cittie assembled with them at Saint Marie Hill; and at one of the clocke descended to the newe staire to their barge, which was garnished with manie goodlie banners and streamers, and richlie covered, in which barges was shalmes, shage-bushes, and divers other instruments of musicke which played continually.
After the maior and his brethren were in their barge, seeing that the companies, to the number of fiftie barges, were readie to wayte upon them, they gave commaundment to the companies that no barge shoulder rowe nearer to another than twice the length of the barge; and to see the order kept, there were three wherries prepared, and in every part two officers to call upon them to keepe their order.
After which commaundment given, they set forth in order as hereafter described. First, before the maiors barge, was a foyste, for a wafter full of ordinance, in which foyste was a great red dragon, continually moving and casting wild fire; and round about the said foyste stoode terrible monstrous and wilde men casting fire, and making hideous noyse; next after the foist a good distance came the maiors barge, in which were trumpets, and divers other melodious instruments: the deckers of the said barge, and saile yards, and the top castles, were hanged with rich clothe of gold and silke; and the foreship and stern were two great banners, riche beaten with the armes of the Kinge and Queene; and on the top castle also was a long streamer newlie beaten with the sayde armes.
The sides of the barge were set full of flags and banners of the devices of the companies of Haberdashers and Merchant Adventurers, and the lassiters or cordes, were hanged with innumerable pensels, having little bels at the endes, which made a goodlie noyse, and was a goodlie sight, wavering in the wind: on the outside of the barge were three dozen scutcheons, in metal, of the armes of the Kinge and Queene, which were beaten upon square buckeram divided, so that the right side had the Kinges colours, and the left side the Queenes: which scutcheons were fastened on the clothes of golde and silver hanging on the deckes: on the left hand of the maior was another foyste, in the which was a mount, and on the mount stoode a white faulcon, crowned with a roote of golde, enfironed with white roses and red, which was the Queenes device; about which mount sate virgins singing and playing melodiously.
Next after the maior followed his fellowship, the Haberdashers; next after them the Mercers; then the Grocers; and so every companie in his order; and last of all the maiors and sheriffes officers; every companie having melodie in their barge by themselves, and goodlie garnished with banners, and some covered with silke, and some with arras or such like, which was a goodlie sight to behold; and in this order they rowed by Greenewich to a poynte beyond, and there they turned backwards in another order, that is, to wit, the maiors and sheriffes officers first, and the meanest craft next, and so according to the uppermost craft in order and the maior last, as they go to Paules at Christmas; and in that order they rode downeward to Greenewich towne, and there cast anchor, making great melodie.
At three of the clocke, the Queene, appareled in riche clothe of golde, entered into her barge, accompanied with divers ladies and gentlewomen; and incontinent the citizens set forward in their order, their minstrels continuallie playing, and the bachelors barge going on to the Queenes right hand, which shee tooke great pleasure to beholde. About the Queens barge were manie noblemen, as the duke of Suffolke, the marquess of Dorset, the earle of Wiltshire her father, the earles of Arundale Darbie, Rutland, Worcester, Huntington, Sussex, Oxford, and manie bishops and noblemen, every one in his barge, which was a goodlie sight to behold.
Shee thus being accompanied rowed towards the Tower: and in the meane way the ships which were commaunded to lie on the shoare for letting the barges, shotte divers peales of guns, and ere shee landed, there was a marvelous shotte out of the Tower, I never heard the like: and at her landing there mette with her lord chamberleine, with officers if armes, and brought her to the Kinge, which received her with loving countenance at the Posterne by the water side, and kissed her, and then shee turned backe againe, and thanked the maior and the citizens with manie goodlie wordes, and so entered into the Tower.
On Fridaie at dinner served the Kinge all such as were appoynted by his Highnesse to bee Knightes of the Bathe, which after dinner were brought to their chambers, and the night were bathed, and shriven according to the olde usage of England, and the next daie in the morning the Kinge dubbed them according to the ceremonies thereto belonging, whose names hereafter ensue, nineteen in number; the marquess of Dorset; the earle of Darbie; the lord Clifford, sonne and heire to the earle of Cumberland; the lord Fitz-Walter, sonne and heire to the earle of Sussex; the lord Hastings, sonne and heire to the earle of Huntingdon: the lord Montague; the lord Vaux; sir Henry Parker, sonne and heire to the lord Morley; Sir William Winsore, sonne and heire to lord Winsore; Sir John Mordant, sonne and heire to lord Mordant; Sir Francis Weston; Sir Thomas Arondale; Sir John Hudlestone; Sir Thomas Poynings; Sir Henry Savell; Sir George Fitzwilliam of Lincolnshire; Sir John Tindale; Sir Thomas Jerney.
On Saturdaie, the one and thirthieth daie of Maie, the Queene was conveyed through London on order as followeth: to the intent that the horses shoulde not slide on the pavement, nor that the people shoulde bee hurt by horses, the high streetes wherethrough the Queene shoulde passe, were all gravelled from the Tower unto temple-barre, and rayled on each side; within which rayles stoode the craftes along in their order from Grace Church, where the merchants of the Stil-yard stoode untill the little Conduit in Cheape, where the aldermen stoode and on the other side of the streete stoode the constables of the cittie, apparelled in velvet and silke, with great staves in their handes, to cause the people to give roome, and keepe good order; and when the streetes were somewhat ordered, the maior in a gowne of crimosin velvet, and a riche collar of esses, with two footmen clothed in white and red damaske, rode to the Tower, to give his attendance on the Queene, on whom the sheriffes, with their officers, did awaite untill they came to the Tower hill, where they, taking their leave, rode downe the high streetes, commaunding the constables to see roome and good order kept, and so went and stoode by the aldermen in Cheape.
And before the Queene with her traine shoulde come, Grace Streete and Cornhill were hanged with fine scarlet, crimosin, and other grained clothes, and in some places with riche arras/ and the most parte of Cheape was hanged with clothe of tissue, golde, velvet, and manie riche hangings which did make a goodlie shewe; and all the windowes were replenished with ladies and gentlewomen, to beholde the Queene and her traine as they shoulde passe by.
The first of the Queenes companie that set forward were twelve Frenchmen, belonging unto the French ambassador, clothed in coats of blew velvet, with sleeves of yellow and blew velvet, their horses trapped with close trappers of blew sarsenet poudred with white crosses; after them marched gentlemen, esquires, knights, two and two; after them the judges; after them the Kinghts of the Bate in violet gownes with hoodes purled with miniver like doctors; after them abbots; then barons; after them bishops, the earles and marquesses; then the Lord Chancelor of England; after him the archbishop of York, and the ambassador of Venice, after them the archbishop of Canterburie, and the ambassador of France; after rode two esquires of honor, with robes of estate rolled and worne bauldrike-wise about their neckes, with caps of estate, representing the Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine; after them rode the maior of London with his mace, and Garter in his coate of armes, which bare also his mace of Westminster-hall.
After them rode the lord William Howard with the marshalls rod, deputy to his brother the duke of Norfolke, Marshall of England, which was ambassador then in France;on his right hand rode Charles, duke of Suffolke, for the daie High Constable of England, bearing the warder of silver appertaining to the office of constableship; and all the lordws for the most part were clothed in crimosin velvet; and all the Queenes servants or officers of armes in scarlet; next before the Queene rode her chancelor bare-headed; the sergeants and officers at armes rode on both sides of the lordes.
Then came the Queene in a white litter of white clothe of golde, not covered or vailled, which was led by two palfreis clad in white damaske down to the ground, head and all, led by her footment. Shee had on a kirtle of white clothe of tissue, and a mantle of the same furred with armyns (ermine), her haire hanging downe, but on her heade shee had a coife with a circlet about it full of riche stones; over her was borne a canapie of clothe of golde with foure gilte staves and foure silver bels; afor bearing of which canapie were appoynted sixteene knights; foure to beare it one space on foote, and foure another space, according to their own appoyntment; next after the Queene rode the lord Browgh her chamberleine; next after him William Coffin, master of the horses, leading a spare horse with a side-saddle, trappeddowne with clothe of tissue; after him rode seaven ladies in crimosin velvet, turned up with clothe of golde and tissue, and their horses trapped with golde, after them two chariots covered with red clothe of golde.
In the first chariot were two ladies, which were the olde duchesse of Norfolke, and the olde marchionesse of Dorset; in the second chariot were foure ladies all in crimosin velvet; after them rode seaven ladies all in the same suite, their horses trapped and all; after them came the thrid chariot all in white, with sixe ladies in crimosin velvet; next to them came the fourth chariot all red, with eyght ladies also in crimosin; after whom followed thirty gentlewomen all in velvet and silke in the liverie of their ladies on whom they gave attendance; after them followed the guarde in coates of goldsmiths worke, in which order the rode forthe untill they came to Fan-church.
At Fan-church was made a pageant all of children apparelled like merchants, which wel-coumed her to the cittie, with two proper propositions both in French and in English; and from thence she rode unto Grace-church Corner, where was a costlie and marvellous cunning pagant made by merchants of the Stilyard, wherein was the Mount of Pernassus, with the Fountaine of Helicon, which was of white marble, and foure streames without pipe did rise an ell high, which founaine ranne abudantly with racket Reynishe wine untill night; on the mountain sate Apollo, and at his feet sate Caliope; and on every side of the mountain sate foure Muses playing on severall sweete instrumentes, and at their feete epigrams and poesies were written in golden letters, in which every Muse, according to her property, praysed the Queene.
From thence the Queene with her traine passed to Leadenhall, where was a goolie pageant, with a tippe and heavenly rose; and under the tippe was a goodlie roote of gold set on a little mountaine, environed with red roses and white; out of the tippe came downe a faulcon all white, and set uppon the roote, and incontinent came downe an angell with greate melodie, and set a close crowne of golde on the faulcons head: and in the same pagant sate Saint Anne, with all her issue beneath her; and under Mary Cleophe sate her four children; of which children one made a goolie oration to the Queene of the fruitfulness of Saint Anne, and of her genration, trusting that lie fruit shoulde come to her.
Then shee passed to the conduit in Cornhill, where were the three Graces set in a throne, afore whome was the spring of grace, continuallie running wine; afore the fountaine sate a poet, declaring the property of every Grace; that done, every ladie by herself, according to her propertie, gave to the Queene a severall gift of grace. That done, shee passed by the great conduit in Cheape, which was newlie paynted with ares and devises, out of which conduit (by a goodlie fountaine set at the end) ranne continuallie wine, both white and claret, all that afternoon; and so shee rode to the Standard which was richlie paynted with images of kinges and queenes, and hanged with baners of armes; and in the toppe was marvellous sweet harmonie bothe of songs and instrumentes.m
Then shee went forward to the Crosse, which was newlie gilte, untill shee came where the aldermen stoode; and then maister Baker, the recorder, gave to her, in the name of the cittie, a thousande markes in golde, in a purse of golde, which shee thankfully accepted with manie good wordes, and so rode to the little conduit, where was a riche pageant full of melodie and songs, in which pageant was Pallas, Juno, and Venus, and afore them stood Mercurie, which in the name of the three goddesses gave to her, that is to say, Wisedom, Riches, and Felicitie. As shee entered into Paules gate there was a pretie pagant, in which sate three ladies richlie clothed; and in a circle on their heads was written Regina Anna, prosper, proceede, and raigne.
From thence shee passed to the easte end of Saint Paules Church against the schoole, where stoode a scaffolde, and children well apparelled, which siad to her divers goodlie verses of poets translated into English, to the honor of the Kinge and her; which she highlie commended. And then shee came to Ludgate, which was newe garnished with golde and bisse, and on the leades of Saint Martins Church stoode a goodlie queere of singing men and children, which sang new ballets made in prayse of her Grace.
After that shee was past Ludgate, shee proceeded towards Fleet-street, where the Conduit was newlie panted, and all the armes and angells refreshed, and the shalmes melodiouslie sounding. Uppon the Conduit was made a tower with foure turrets, and in every turret stoode one of the cardinal vertues, with their tokens and properties, which has severall speeches, promising the Queene never to leave her, but to be aiding and comforting her, and in the middest of the tower itself was such several solemne instrumentes, that it seemed to bee an heavenlie noyse, and was much regarded and praysed; and besides the Conduit ranne wine, claret and white, all the afternoone; so shee with all her companie, and the maior, rode forth to Templebarre, which was newlie paynted and repaired, where stode also divers singing men and children, until shee came to Westminster-hall.
Westminster-hall was richlie hanged with clothe of arras, and newlie glased; and in the middest of the hall shee was taken out of her litter; and so ledde up to the high deske under the Clothe of Estate, on whose left had was a cupboard of ten stages high, marvellous riche and beautifull to beholde; and within a little season was brought to the Queene, with a solemne service in great standing, spice plates, a voide of spice, and subtleties, with ipocrasse, and other wines, which shee sent down to her ladies, and when the ladies had drunke, shee gave heartie thanks to the lords and ladies and to the maior, and others that had given their attendance on her; and so withdrewe herself with a fewe ladies to the White-hall, and so to her chamber, and here shifted her; and after went in her barge secretly to the Kinge to his mannor of Westminster, where shee rested all night.
On Whitson-daie, the First of June, 1533, the maior, clad in crimosin velvet, with his coller, and all the aldermen and sheriffes in scarlet, and the councell of the cittie, took their barge at the Crane by seaven of the clocke , and came to Westminster , where they were welcomed and brought into the hall by Mr. Treasurer and others of the Kinges house, and so gave their attendance until the Queene shoulde come forth. Betweene eyght and nyne of the clocke shee came into the hall, and stoode under the Clothe of Estate, and then came in the Kinges chappell ; and the monks of Westminster, all in rich copes, and mitres, which went into the middest of the hall, and there stoode a season; then there was a rayle of clothe spread from the Queenes standing in the hall, through the palace and sanctuarie, which was rayled on both sides, to the high altar of Westminster; after that the rayle of clothe was cast, and the officers of armes appointed the order accustomed.
First went gentlemen, then esquires, then knights, then aldermen of London in their cloakes of scarlet cast over their gownes of scarlet. After them the judges in their mantles of scarlet and coifes; then followed the Knights of the Bathe being no lords, every man having a white lace on his left sleeve; then followed barons and viscounts in their parliamentary robes of scarlet; after them came earles, marquesses and dukes, in their robes of estate, of crimosin velvet, furred with armyn, poudred according to their degrees; after them came the lord chancellor in a robe of scarlet, open before, bordered with lettice; after him came the Kinges chappell, and the monks solemnely singing, with procession.
Then came abbots and bishops mitred; then sergeants and officers-at-armes, then the maior of London with his mace, and Garter in his coate of armes; then the marquess of Dorset in his robe of estate, which bare the scepter of golde, and the earle of Arundell, which bare the rod of ivoirie with the dove, both together, then alone, the earle of Oxford, High Chamberleine of England, which bare the crowne; after him the duke of Suffolke in his robe of estate, for that daie being High Steward of England, having a long white rod in his hande, and the lord William Howard with the rod of the marshalls -ship, and every knight of the Garter had on his collar of the order.
Then proceeded forth the Queene , in a circote and robe of purpell velvet, furred with armyn in her hair, coife, and circlet as shee had the Saturdaie; and over her was borne the canapie by foure of the Cinque Ports, all in crimosin, with pointes of blew and red hanging on their sleeves; and the bishops of London and Winchester bare up the laps of the Queenes robe and by her traine, which was verie long, was borne by the olde duchess of Norfolke; after followed ladies being lordes wives, which had circotes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, the breast all lettice, with barres of poudres according to their degrees, and over that they had mantles of scarlet furred, and every mantle had lattice about the necke like a neckerchiefe, likewise poudred, so that by the poudreings their degrees might be known; then followed ladies being knights wives, in gownes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, without traines , onelie edged with lettice , likewise had all the queenes gentlewomen.
When shee was thus brought to the high place made in the middest of the church, betweene the queere and the high altar, shee was set in a riche chaire; and after that shee had rested a while, shee descended downe unto the high altar, and there prostrated herselfe, which then the archbishop of Canterburie saide certain collects over her. Then shee rose, and the bishop anointed her on the head and on the breast, and then shee was led uppe againe to her chaire, where, after divers orisons saide, the archbishope set the crowne of Saint Edward on her head, and then delivered her the scepter of golde in her right hande, and then rod of ivorie with the dove in her left hande; and then all the queere sung Te Deum; which done, the bishop tooke off the crowne of Saint Edward, being heavie, and set on her head the crowne made for her.
An so went to masse; and when the offering was bugunne shee descended down and offered, being crowned, and so ascended uppe againe, and sate in her chaire till Agnus was sayd, and then shee went downe and kneeled befoe the high altar, where shee received of the archbishop the holy sacrament, and then went up to the place again.
After that masse was done, shee went to Saint Edwards shrine, and there offered; after which offering done, shee withdrewe into a little place made for the purpose on the one side of the queere. Now in the meane season every duchesse put on her bonet a coronell of golde; and every countesse a plaine circle of golde without flowers; and every king-at-armes put on a crowne of copper and gilte; all which was worne until night.
When the Queene had a little reposed her, the companie returned in the same order that they set forth, and the Queene went crowned, and so did the ladies aforesaid. Her right hand was sustained by the earle of Wiltshire her father, and her lefte hand by the lord Talbot, deputy for the earle of Shrewsbury and lord Furnivall his father. And when shee was out of the sanctuarie within the palace, the trumpets played marveylous freshly, and so shee was brought to Westminster-hall, and so to her withdrawing chamber: during which time the lordes, judges, maior, and aldermen, put off their robes, mantles, and cloakes, and tooke their hoodes from their neckes, and cast them about their shoulders; and the lordes sate onely in their circotes; and the judges and aldermen in their gownes; and all the lordes that served that day served in their circotes, and their hoodes about their shoulders; also divers officers of the Kinge house, being no lords, had circotes and hoodes of scarlet, edged with miniver, as Treasurer, Controller, and Master of the Jewell-House, but their circotes were not gilt.
While the Queen was in her chamber, every lord and other that ought to do service at coronations, did prepare them according to their dutie; as the duke of Suffolke, High Stewarde of England, which was richely appareled, his dublet and jacket set with orient pearle, his gowne crimosin velvet embrothered, his courser trapped with a close trapper, head and all to the ground of crimosin velvet, set full of letters of golde and goldesmithes worke, having a long white rod in his hande; on his left hande rode the lord William, deputie for his brother, as earle marshall, with the marshalls rod, who gowne was of crimosin velvet, and his horse trapper purpell velvet cutte on white satin, embrothered with white lions.
The earle of Oxford was High Chamberleine; the earle of Essex carver; the earle of Sussex sewer; the earle of Arundell chiefe butler, on whom twelve citizens of London did give their attendance at the cupboard; the earle of Darbie cupbearer; the viscount Lisle panter; the lord Burgenny chiefe larder; the lord Bray almoner for him and his copartners; and the maior of Oxforde kept the buttery-bar; and Thomas Wyatt was chosen ewerer for Sir Henry Wyatt his father.
When all things were ready and ordered, the Queene under her canapie came into the hall and washed, and sate downe in the middest of the table under her clothe of estate; on the right hande side of her chaire stood the countesse of Oxford, widow, and on her left hande stoode the countesse of Worcester all the dinner season, which divers times in the dinner time did hold a fine clothe before the Queenes face when she list to spit, or doe otherwise at her pleasure; and at the tables end sat ethe archbishop of Canterburie; on the right hande of the Queene, and in the middest betweene the archbishop and the countesse of Oxford, stoode the earle of Oxford with a white staffe all dinner time.
At the Queenes feet under the table sate two gentlewomen all dinner time. When all these things were thus ordered, came in the duke of Suffolke and the lord William Howard on horseback, and the sergeants-of-armes before them, and after them the Sewer, and then the Knights of the Bathe, bringing in the first course, which was eyght and twentie dishes, besides subtleties, and shippes made of ware, marveylous gorgeous to beholde; all which time of service the trumpets, standing in the windowe at the meather end of the hall, played.
When shee was served of two dishes, then the archbiships service was set downe, whose ewer came equall with the third dishe of the Queenes service on his left hande. After that the Queene and the archbishop were served, the Barons of the Ports began the table on the right hande next to the wall; then at the table sate the maisters and clearkes of the Chancerie; and beneath them other doctors and gentlemen. The table next the wall on the left hande by the cupboard was begunne by the maior and aldermen, the chamberliene and councell of the cittie of London; and beneath them sate substantiall merchants, and so downeward other worshipfull persons.
At the table on the right hande, in the middest of the hall, sate the lord chancellor, and other temporall lordes, on the right hande of the table in their circotes; and on the left side of the same table sate bishops and abbots in their parliament robes; beneath them sate the judges, sergeants, beneath them the Knights of the Bathe. At the table on the left hande in the middest part sate duchesses, marchionesses, countesses, baronesses in their robes, and other ladies in circotes, and the gentlewomen in gownes, all which gentlewomen and ladies sate on the left side of the table along, and none on the right side; and when all were thus set, they were incontinent served so quicklie that it was marveylous; for the servitors gave so goode attendance, that meate, nor drinke, nor anything else needed to be called for, which in so great a multitude was marvell.
As touching the fare, there coulde be devised no more costlie dishes nor subtleties. The maior of London was served with foure and thirtie dishes at two courses and so were all his brethren, and such as sate at his table. The Queeene had at her second course founre and twentie dishes, and thirtie at the third course; and betweene the last courses, the kinges-at-armes were crowned and other officers-at-armes cryed Larges! in three partes of the hall, and after stoode in their place, which was in the beckens of the Kinges Benche; and on the right hande, out of the cloister of Saint Stephens Chappell, was made a little closet, in which the Kinge with divers ambassadors stoode to behold the service. The duke of Suffolke and the lord William rode oftentimes about the hall, cheering the lordes, ladies, and the maior and his brethren.
After they in the hall had dined, they had wafers and ipocrase, and then they washed, and were commaunded to rise and stande still in their places before the tables, or on the fourmes, until the Queene had washed. When shee had taken wafers and ipocrase, the tables were taken uppe, and the earle of Rutland brought up the surnape and laid it at the boards end, which immediately was drawne and cast by Mr. Reade, marshall of the hall, and the Queene washed, and afterward the surnape was withdrawn.
Then shee rose, and stoode in the middest of the hall-place, to whom the earle of Sussex, in goodlie spice plate, brought a voide of spice and confections. After him the maior of London brought a standing cuppe of golde, set in a cuppe of assay of golde; and after that shee had drunke shee gave the maior the cuppe, with the cuppe of assay, because there was no cover, according to the claim of the cittie, thanking him and all his brethren of their paine.
Then shee under her canapie departed to her chamber; and at the entry of her chamber shee gave the canapie, with bels and all, to the Barons of the Ports according to their claim, with great thanks; then the maior of London, bearing his cuppe in his hande, with his brethren, went through the hall to their barge, and so did all other noblemen and gentlemen, for it was sixe of the clocke.