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A continuation as the first blog post was too long for Live Journal!

CLVII Dominus Ludovicu, pro dimid’ cendallo ad unum pallium, & pro cendallo ad unum capellum ad ag’. XV. s. Lord Louis, for a half (a bolt?) of cendal for a hanging and for cendal for a cloak at ag. XV. s.
CLVII Pro roba, de viridi forato de celdal, octo dies ante Magdalenum. LX. s. For a gown, of green, furred with cendal, eight days before Saint Magdalenes LX. s.
CLVII Pro roba de Estamfort quam habuit die sabbati post medium Augustum. XXXVI. s. For a robe of stamen that was had the Sunday past the middle of August.  XXXVI. s.
CLVII Pro roba camelini, & pro capa forata quam habuit ad Septembrechiam. X. L. v. s minus For a gown of camlet, and for a lined cloak that was had at September. X. L. less 5. s.
CLVII Pro II. capis pluvialibus quas habuit ad S. Remigium. LXVII. s. For 2 rain cloaks that were had at Saint Remigium. LXVII. s.
CLVII Pro sua roba viridi quam habuit XV. dies ante Omnium Sanctorum. C. s. V. s minus. For his gown of green that was had 15 days before All Saints. C. s. less 5 s.
CLVII Pro sua chapular’ de camelini furator de v. XL. s. For his camlet scapular lined with vari.  XL. s.
CLVII Pro sua roba camelini ad Omnium Sanctorum. IIII. L. For his camlet robe at All Saints. IIII. L.
CLVII Pro capa forata domini Tocelini. C. & IX s. For a lined cloak Lord Tocelini, C. and IX s.
CLVII Pro grisiogr’intorum & muflorum, V. L. For gray gowns and gloves (mufflers) V. L.
CLVII Regina, pro tunica & pallio & supertunicali quam domina Margarita habuit ad medium Augustum. VI. L. III. s minus. The Queen, for a tunic and veil and overtunic that Lady Margaret had at the middle of August.  VI. L. less 3 s.
CLVII Pro roba Reginae, & pro sua capa forata quam habuit ad S. Remigium. XXVIII. L. III. s. minus. For the Queen’s gown, and for her lined cloak that was had at Saint Remigius. XXVII. L. less III. s.
CLVII Pro II. paribus robarum quas Dominae habuerunt. XVIII. L. For 2 pairs of robes that the Ladies had.  VXIII. L.
CLVII Pro uno pellicio grisio, & II. de escurellis. VII. L. & dim’. For a pelicon of gris, and 2 of squirrels. VII. L. and a half.
CLVII Pro II. ulnis de burneta ad caligas. XVI. s. For 2 ells of brunet for stockings.  XVI. s.
CLXXV Rosellus, pro tunica. XX. s. Rosellus, for a tunic.  XX. s.
CLXXIX & robis servientum Archiepiscopi and clothes for the servants of the Archbishop
CLXXXIII Par furura varii minuti quam Rex habuit ad supertunicale de camlino, in craftino compoti, LXV. s. For a miniver lining that the King had for the camlet supertunic, in the craftino account, LXV. s.
CLXXXIII Et pro furura varii minuti ad capam de camelino, ad S. Andream, C. sol. And for a miniver lining for the camlet cloak, at Saint Andrew, C. sol.
CLXXXIII Pro furura minuti varii ad supertunicale quod habuit tunc, LXX. s. For a miniver lining for a supertunic he had then, LXX. s.
CLXXXIII Pro capa scarlatae quam Rogerus Pica habuit, XV. deibus ante Natele, VI. L & IIII. x
s.
For a scarlet cloak that Roger Pica had, VS. days before the Nativity. VI. L. and IIII. s.
CLXXXIII Pro capa scarlatae molatae quam Rex tunc habuit. XV. L. For an embroidered scarlet cloak that the King had then. XV. L.
CLXXXIII Pro roba sua scarlatae quam habuit ad Natale, XVI. L. For his scarlet gown that he had for the Nativity. XVI. L.
CLXXXIII Pro capa quam Malc’ habuit VIII. diebus post Natale, IIII. L. & III. s. For a cloak that Malc’ had eight days after the Nativity, IIII. L. and III. s.
CLXXXIII Dominus Ludovicus habuit post compotum I. capam viridem & I. capularium ad S. Andream, quae costaverunt VI. L, III. s. minus. Lord Louis had after the accounting 1 green cloak and 1 scapular for Saint Andreas that cost VI. L. less III. s.
CLXXXIII Et pro I. supertunicali de camelino qudo habuit tunc, LXIII. s. And for 1 overtunic of camlet at the same time. LXIII. s.
CLXXXIII Pro sua roba nigra quam habuit ad Natales, C. s. III. s. minus For his black gown that was had at Nativity.  C. s. less III. s.
CLXXXIII Et pro sua roba de camelino de Natali, IIII. L. & IIII. s. And for his gown of camlet for Nativity, IIII. L. and IIII. s.
CLXXXIII Pro suo pellicio XXXV. s. And for his pelicon XXXV. s.
CLXXXIII Uxor Domini Ludovici, pro sua roba viridi ad Natale, XIII. L. V. s. minus. The wife of Lord Louis, for her green gown for the Nativity.  XIII. L. less V. s.
CLXXXIII Pro pellicio Margaretae, XX. s. For a pelicon for Margaret.  XX. s.
CLXXXIII Pro duabus robis de burneta quas nutrices Pissiaci habuerunt ad Natale, XXVII. L. & dim’. For 2 burnet gowns for the Poissy nurses that they had for Nativity., XXVII. L. and a half.
CLXXXIII Pro duabus robis scarlatae quas pueri habuerunt ad Natale, IIII. L. & XII. s. For 2 scarlet gowns that the children had for Nativity, IIII. L. and XII. s.
CLXXXIII Pro roba quam cameraria habuit VIII. diebus post Purificationem, LX. s. For chamber robes had eight days after the Feast of the Purification, LX. s.
CLXXXIII Pro serico ad jacendum pueris, & capellis & fresellis, & pro pannis & tuallis & camisis quas tunc pueri habuerunt, XLI. s. For silk for the delight of the children, and cowls and trims, and for fabric and towels and chemises that the children had at this time.  XLI. x.
CLXXXVI Castellanus Ebroicarum, pro roba, X. L. At the Ebroica castel, for gowns, X. L.
CC Pro roba Hugonis de Gravella ad carni-pruvium, XIIII. L. For a gown for Hugo de Gravella at Carnipruvius.  XIIII. L.
CC Pro furatura minuti varii ad capam de camelino, & pro forando capucio capae ad aquam quam Rex habuit in prima die quadragesimae, VI. L. For a miniver lininng for a camlet cloat and for lining and hooded cloak for water that the King had the first day of Quadragesimae.  VI. L.
CCI Pro I. capello furato de grisio, IIII. sol. For 1 cowl furred with gris.  IIII. sol.
CCI Pro roba scarlatae ad Pascha, XCI. L. & dim. For a scarlet gown for Easter. XCI. L. and a half.
CCI Et pro supertunicali furato de vario minuto quod portatum fuit in exercitum, LXII. s. For an overtunic lined with miniver worn while with the army, LXII. s.
CCI Et pro capa camelini furata de minuto vario quam habuit tunc, VI. L, V. s. minus. And for a cloak of camlet lined with miniver that was had at that time.  VI. L. less V. s.
CCI Pro II. tunicis de Esteinfort ad armare, XXXIIII. s. For 2 tunics of stamen for arming, XXXIIII. s.
CCI Pro roba scarlatae ad Penthecosten, XVI. L. & dim. For a scarlet gown for Pentecost. XVI. L.  and a half.
CCI Pro furura supertunicalis viridis de vario minuto quam habuit tunc, LXV. s. For lining a green overtunic with miniver that was had at that time.  LXV. s.
CCI Pro furura varia magni supertunicalis ad surgendum, C. s. IIII. s. minus. For vair lining for large overtunics for rising, C. s. less IIII. s.
CCI Pro sua capa ad Pentecosten, IX. L. & dim. For his cloak for Pentecost.  IX L. and a half.
CCI Pro furura varia ad robam Willelmi de Garlanda, VIII. L. & dim. For a vair lining for the gown of William de Garland, VIII. L. and a half.
CCI Pro tribus paribus robarum Militum novorum ad Penthecosten, XXII. L. For three sets of new military robes at Pentecost.  XXII. L.
CCI Coopertorium novum furatum de cendalo, LXXII. s. ad Penthecosten.. New coverlets lined with cendal, LXXII. s. at Pentecost.
CCI Pro VI. cendalis ad capam & supertunicale & ad capucium capae ad aquam, & pro I. tunica ad armare, & pro I. tunica Domni Ludovici, & pro duabus tunicis cendalis viridis ad armare, VIII. L. For 6 [bolts] of cendal for cloaks and overtunics and hooded cloaks against water, and for 1 arming tunic, and for 1 tunic for Lord Louis and for 2 green cendal arming tunics.  VIII. L.
CCI Pro tribus cendalibus & dim’, & dimidia ulna, nigris, ad armaturas faciendas, C. s. For three [bolts] and a half of cendal and half an ell, black, for the making of armour.  C. x.
CCI Pueri Pissiaci.  Die Sabbati prima quadragesimae, pro VIII. ulnis telae ad camisias & ad pannos faciendos, XVI. s. Children of Poissy.  The first Sunday of Quadragesima, for VIII. ells of linen for chemises and to make clothing, XVI. s.
CCI Pro XXIIII. ulnis telae ad camisias Dominarum ad eundem terminum. XL. s. For 24 ells of linen for chemises for the Ladies at the same time, XL. s.
CCI Pro camisiis camerariarum, XV. s. For chamber chemises, XV. s.
CCI Pro IIII. tuallis, VII. s. For IIII. towels. VII. s.
CCI Pro Xii. ginplis ad opus Dominarum & camerariarum, & pro laqueo serico, LXIII. s. For 12 wimples for use of the ladies and those of the chamber and for silk nets. LXIII. s.
CCI Pro roba camerariae tunc, LVIII. sol. For a chamber gown, then LVIII. sol.
CCI Pro tunicis & supertunicalibus & pelliciis & caligis quas pueri habuerunt ad Pascha, C. & VII. s. For tunics and overtunics and pelicons and boots that the children had for Easter, C. and VII. s.
CCI Pro tunicis & supertunicalibus & pelliciis grisiis ad Penthecosten, IIII. L. & dim. For tunics and overtunics and pelicons of gris for Pentecost.  IIII. L. and a half.
CCI Pro duabus paribus robarum quas Dominae habuerunt ad Penteosten. For two sets of robes that the Ladies had for Pentecost.
CCI Pro XLVIII. ulnis telae ad quatuor paria pannorum quos habuerunt VIII. diabus post Pentechosten, LXXXIII. s. For XLVIII. ells of linen for four sets of clothes that they had 8 days after Pentecost.  LXXXIII. s.
CCI Pro II. paribus pannorum ad camerarias, XX. s. For 2 sets of clothing for the chamberers XX. s.
CCI Pro XI. ulnis telae ad camisias puerorum, & ad tunicum, & ad unum cheinse, XXII. s. For XI. ells linen for children’s chemises, and tunics, and for a cheinse.  XXII. s.
CCI Pro mappis & tuallis, XI s. For napkins and towels.  XI. s.
CCI Pro robis Domini Ludovici & uxoris suae, C. & CLV. L. V. s. minus For robes for Lord Louis and his wife, C and CLV. L. less V. s.
CCII Et pro papilionibus, & cendallis, & aliis harnesiis, VII-XX, L, XIIII. s. minus. And for a pavilion, and cendals, and all kinds of harness, VII-XX (140) L. less XIIII s.
CCIII Et pro vestibus servientum Girardi de Marc & Galteri de Roinai, CC. L. For clothing the servants of Gerard de Marc and Galteri de Raoinai, CC. L.
“Le Premiere Budget de la Monarchie Francaise, Le Compte Générale de 1202-1203” by Ferdinand Lot and Robert Fawtier (1932) features a complete transcription of the first French royal budgetary record still extant.  With this blog, I’ve read through and extracted the pertinent records that related to clothing.  Presented below is a table that features the individual entries.  The Roman numeral represents the page of the record, the Latin original is given, and finally, a proposed translation of the entry is presented.

The records vary between receipts and expenses – the clothing entries are under “Expensa”.  Most entries include the owner or intended recipient of the item, some identifying details of the garment, a time or date of payment/receipt, and finally the cost of the item, in Livres (pounds) and sols (shillings).  From other areas of the accounts, a good horse cost around 50 pounds for value reference.

The specific fabrics listed are stamin (estamine) which is a worsted wool cloth, and not a fulled wool.  Camlet is the other wool.  Most sources think this wool is woven with a warp of angora sheep from Turkey, but another source claims that the word for camlet stems from the low-countries that produced it specifying that the wool was from the “kamm” or combed wool – and thus a form of worsted fabric.  Cendal, a thin silk is often listed, but there are no references in this document to exotic figured silks, which could be found imported earlier from Sicily into Henry the Second’s court.  Furs include gris, vair, miniver, squirrel, and leopard.  There are many entries for wolves and their cubs in the account book, worth about a livre a piece.  At that expense it is more likely they were part of a wolf eradication program and the money given as bounty.

Phillippe Augustus had a blended family.  He had turned away the queen because she had bad breath, but she refused to have the marriage annulled.  Meanwhile, Phillipe married Agnes and had 2 children by her.  Agnes died in 1201, and the orphan children at Poissy are from that union.  One can see that they are well-provided for in the way of clothing, and other entries for food and necessaries also bear that their father cared for them.  They were eventually made legitimate by their father and the church.  Meanwhile, the Queen/Not Queen/Queen also kept court.

Page Latin Transcription Translation
CXLI De duobus palliis Pentecostis Comitis Bellimontis x.L. For two silk cloths for Pentecost for the Count Bellemont x.L.
CXLVII Pro robis sex balistariorum Paciaci vi.L. For six robes for Poissy arbalists vi. L.
CXLIX De sex mappis & sex toalliis iiii.L For six napkins and six towels iiii.L.
CLVI Pro una tunica armer quam Rex habuit octo dies post S. Johannem xv. s. For an arming tunic that the King had eight days after Saint John’s xv. s.
CLVI Pro I. cendallo idem, & pro uno jubeo, quos habuit xv. dies post S. Johannem i.s. For one cendal the same, & for one jupe that he had 15 days after Saint John’s I.s.
CLVI Pro I. tunica de Stamforti, ad Magal’. xv s. For 1 tunic of stamin, at St. Madgalene, xv s.
CLVI Pro I. furura unius supertunicalis Domini Barth. LVII. s. For 1 lining of one overtunic Saint Bartholemew, LVII s.
CLVI Pro I. furura de celdal ad robam viridem quam habuit die Sabbati post medium Augustum. CL. s. For 1 lining of cendal for a green robe had the Sunday after the middle of August.  CL. s.
CLVI Pro supertunicali ad manicas ejuidem panni, furaro de v**. LVII s. For an overtunic with sleeves of the same tunic, lined with vair. LVII s.
CLVI Pro I tunica de Stamfort ad eundem terminum XV. s. For 1 tunic of stamen at the same time XV. s.
CLVI Pro capa de camelino furaro de v. VIII dies post medium Augustum. C. s. For a cloak of camlet lined with vair. VIII days past the middle of August C. s.
CLVI Pro I. tunica de Stamfort’ ad S. Barth. XV. s. For 1 tunic of stamen at Saint Bartholmews XV. s.
CLVI Pro capa domini Hugonis de Gravella, & pro pelicio gris. XII. L. For a cloak for Hugo de Gravella and for a pellicon of gris.  XII. L.
CLVI Pro furura de cendal ad supertuncal’ octo diebus post S. Dionysium. XXVII. s. For lining of cendal for an overtunic eight days after Saint Dionysius.  XXVII s.
CLVI Pro roba de camelino furara de ver, ad Omnium Sanctorum. VIII. L. For a gown of camlet furred with vair, at All Saints VIII. L.
CLVI Pro sua capa de eodem panno, furara de ver. C. s. For his cloak of the same fabric, lined with vair, C. s.
CLVI Pro II. capellis, & pro manicis magni supertunicalis furandis. XX. s. For 2 cowls and for a supertunic’s large sleeves to be lined. XX. s.
CLVI Expensa puerorum Pissiaci Expenses for the children at Poissy
CLVI Pro XVI. ulnis telae ad pannos & ad camifias, ad S. Berthol’ XXXVI. s. For 16 ells of linen for clothes and for chemises at Saint Bartholomews XXXVI. s.
CLVI Pro VII. ulnis panni ad tunicas & ad supertunical’ & ad chapular’ & ad coopertoria, & pro fururis. VIII. L & dimid’. For 7 ells of cloth (wool) and for over tunics and scapulars and for blankest and for linings VIII. L. and a half.
CLVI Pro I. langello, & pro capellis, & pro fresell’ X. s. For 1 woolen baby wrap, and for cowls, and for border trims X. s.
CLVI Pro tunica & supertunicali camerariae, quas habuit ad S. Lazarum. LX. s. For tunics and overtunics for the chamber, that was had at Saint Lazarus LX. s.
CLVI Pro II. peliciis escurellorum, & pro II. leporum. VI. L. & II. s. For 2 pelicons of squirrel and 2 of leopard.  VI. L. and II x.
CLVI Pro subtularibus, & pro auricularibus, XXIII. s. For shoes and for ear coverings (?) XXIII. s.
CLVI Et pro VI. peplis. XXXIII. s. And for 6 veils (or cloths under chins) XXXIII. s.
CLVI Summa XXIII. L, V. s. minus Sum (of childen’s clothes) XXIII. L. less 5 s.
I guess I am on a roll with this new cookbook.  Here's a new to me procedure to harvest yeast to use in yeast cakes.  I imagine that the rinsing process would remove the taste of barm and wine slurry to get a more delicate yeast flavor.  And though the recipe doesn't specify this, these types of fritters are often coated with sugar/cinnamon, which would be nice for the raisin fritters.

The ingredient "weinber" can mean both grape or raisin.  There isn't a clue here which one is meant as there sometimes is, but I like the idea of raisins.

Again from the Nuremberg 1560 cookbook, Ein sehr Künstliches und fürtrefflichs Kochbuch von allerley Speysen, Auch wie man Latwergen und Zucker einmachen sol, und sonst von andern guten heimlichen Künsten : Einem jeden im Hauß sehr notwendig und nützlich zugebrauchen here: http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10187731_00048.html

Little yeast cakes with grapes (raisins)
43.
Take beer yeast (barm) / and a half seidlin
wine yeast (wine slurry) / in a pot / that a mas
will go into / pour in lukewarm water
to full / stir well with a spoon
together / let it stand one night / then
strain the water from it in the morning / pour
some warm water on it / stir again
all together / with a cook spoon /
let it stand for one hour or two / strain the
water from it / so that the yeast stays
at the bottom of the pot / take warm water / salt
as a light water-based soup / take the yeast /
that is in the bottom of the pot / with a spoon
the white therefrom / that the yeast
will be nice / put it in a salted water /
you must have four spoons full.  The saltes
water should also be boiled / let it
cool / so that it is lukewarm / put the yeast
in it  / Take a bowl that is not to small /
put wheat flour in it / then stir the
yeast and the water together / strain
it through a little sieve into the
flour / stir it with a spoon all together /
Make the dough not too thin / it
should be thick / like a rolled out little
cake .  Thus one works it / pound
it well / so there are no lumps inside / lay then
a spoon over above the bowl / cover with
a cloth over it / sit it on the oven / and give
warm heat / let it sit / so that
the dough rises / Take it next /
beat it again / put grapes (raisins) therein /
mix it well together / so that
the grapes (raisins) are mixed together /
do not pound it again / put it back on
the oven / cover over with the cloth
and spoon again / let it rise a
while / make some fat hot /
put warm watter in the pot / Take
the dough from the bowl / in a half
egg's breadth / pat out the piece with
fingers / make it above like a pancake /
lay it in the hot fat / turn
over with a spoon / it should not
be brown / but rather white.  So when you
want to lay them down / you must make your
hand wet in the water / otherwise the dough
will stick to the hands / Thus you may make good
little yeast cakes.

Dumplings circa 1560

Also from the Nuremberg 1560 cookbook, Ein sehr Künstliches und fürtrefflichs Kochbuch von allerley Speysen, Auch wie man Latwergen und Zucker einmachen sol, und sonst von andern guten heimlichen Künsten : Einem jeden im Hauß sehr notwendig und nützlich zugebrauchen here: http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10187731_00075.html
Peasant Dumplings
#72.
Take pepper / a good portion of onions
to that / not too many / Chop
it together / not too small /
melt a good part of fat into it /
beat next two or three eggs
there in / and parsley / and make
it not to thin with the eggs /
fat / and take wheat flour /
also semolina a spoon full / that
it not so much as the wheat flour / or take also
semmel (bread) there to / if you happen to
have it / so it becomes thick / make the
batter well thick / as you do for meatballs /
when the meat stock simmers / lay them
in / let the simmer be gently made / they
do not need to simmer long / put the fat
and eggs in before / otherwise it does no
good

It is fun to see that these are still a popular thing in Deutschland:

http://www.pfanni.de/produkte/pfanni-semmel-knoedel-mit-roestzwiebeln/4032600134324

A 16th Century Chicken Recipe from Zwickau

I am especially interested in this recipe as part of my own personal heritage.  The city of Zwickau is just a few miles from my mother's father's birthplace and ancestral family seat.  It seems to be a stewed chicken with a finished sauce of creamy milk, eggs, parsley and bacon.  I want to try it!

Chicken of Zwickau

Take a chicken / stew it altogether well / take then four or five eggs / depending on how big it is / and beat them / and take some bacon / and a bit parsley / and chop it well / mix into the eggs / and take a bit of mace / lay it in the stock / as you could with the others / would you rather / so crush an entire nutmeg / and sprinkle a bit thereon / you may will to beat fat milk into the eggs / those from Zwickau do it thus / and when you do not use fat milk in it / so it will not be good  / and when you can not have bacon / so take marrow from a meat bone / or may butter / and fill the inside of the chicken / so that it lies inside the skin / and sew it together / you may will the stock / where there is much / also do thusly / let it gently simmer thinner / and the sooner it simmers / and is prepared / the better it is / when is stands long / so it is not good.

From: Ein sehr Künstliches und fürtrefflichs Kochbuch von allerley Speysen, Auch wie man Latwergen und Zucker einmachen sol, und sonst von andern guten heimlichen Künsten : Einem jeden im Hauß sehr notwendig und nützlich zugebrauchen

The Coronation of Anne Boleyn

The Coronation of Anne Boleyn was held from Thursday to Sunday.  The source for this is "A History of the Coronation" by W. J. Passingham, pages 171 - 185. Every part of the ceremony is lavish, and I marvel at how Henry must have felt for Anne.


Part One – Thursday – The River Procession to the Tower

In the month of Maie (1533), THE Kinges Highnesse addressed his letters to the maior and communalitie of London, signifying unto them that his pleasure was to solemnize the coronation of his most deare and welbeloved wife, Queene Anne, at Westminster, on Whitson-daie next ensuing, willing them to make preparation, as well to fetch her Grace from Greenewich to the Tower by water, as to see the cittie garnished with pageants in places accustomed, for the honour of her Grace, when shee shoulde be conveyed from the Tower to Westminster.

Whereupon a common councell was called, and commaundment given to the Haberdashers, of which craft the maior was, that they shoulde prepare a barge for the bachelors, with a master and a foyste, garnished with banners, like as they use when the maior is presented at Westminster on the morrowe after the feast of Saint Simon and Jude. Also all other crafts were commaunded to prepare barges, and to set up all such seemely banners and bannerets, as they had in their halles, or could get to furnish their said barges; and every barge to have minstrels. According to which commaundment great preparation was made for all things necessarie for such a noble triumph.

The twentie ninth daie of Maie, being Thursdaie, the maior and his brethren, all in scarlet, and such as were knights, had collars of esses, and the residue having great chaines, and the councell of the cittie assembled with them at Saint Marie Hill; and at one of the clocke descended to the newe staire to their barge, which was garnished with manie goodlie banners and streamers, and richlie covered, in which barges was shalmes, shage-bushes, and divers other instruments of musicke which played continually.

After the maior and his brethren were in their barge, seeing that the companies, to the number of fiftie barges, were readie to wayte upon them, they gave commaundment to the companies that no barge shoulder rowe nearer to another than twice the length of the barge; and to see the order kept, there were three wherries prepared, and in every part two officers to call upon them to keepe their order.

After which commaundment given, they set forth in order as hereafter described. First, before the maior’s barge, was a foyste, for a wafter full of ordinance, in which foyste was a great red dragon, continually moving and casting wild fire; and round about the said foyste stoode terrible monstrous and wilde men casting fire, and making hideous noyse; next after the foist a good distance came the maior’s barge, in which were trumpets, and divers other melodious instruments: the deckers of the said barge, and saile yards, and the top castles, were hanged with rich clothe of gold and silke; and the foreship and stern were two great banners, riche beaten with the armes of the Kinge and Queene; and on the top castle also was a long streamer newlie beaten with the sayde armes.

The sides of the barge were set full of flags and banners of the devices of the companies of Haberdashers and Merchant Adventurers, and the lassiters or cordes, were hanged with innumerable pensels, having little bels at the endes, which made a goodlie noyse, and was a goodlie sight, wavering in the wind: on the outside of the barge were three dozen scutcheons, in metal, of the armes of the Kinge and Queene, which were beaten upon square buckeram divided, so that the right side had the Kinge’s colours, and the left side the Queene’s: which scutcheons were fastened on the clothes of golde and silver hanging on the deckes: on the left hand of the maior was another foyste, in the which was a mount, and on the mount stoode a white faulcon, crowned with a roote of golde, enfironed with white roses and red, which was the Queene’s device; about which mount sate virgins singing and playing melodiously.

Next after the maior followed his fellowship, the Haberdashers; next after them the Mercers; then the Grocers; and so every companie in his order; and last of all the maior’s and sheriffe’s officers; every companie having melodie in their barge by themselves, and goodlie garnished with banners, and some covered with silke, and some with arras or such like, which was a goodlie sight to behold; and in this order they rowed by Greenewich to a poynte beyond, and there they turned backwards in another order, that is, to wit, the maior’s and sheriffes’ officers first, and the meanest craft next, and so according to the uppermost craft in order and the maior last, as they go to Paules at Christmas; and in that order they rode downeward to Greenewich towne, and there cast anchor, making great melodie.

At three of the clocke, the Queene, appareled in riche clothe of golde, entered into her barge, accompanied with divers ladies and gentlewomen; and incontinent the citizens set forward in their order, their minstrels continuallie playing, and the bachelors’ barge going on to the Queene’s right hand, which shee tooke great pleasure to beholde. About the Queens’ barge were manie noblemen, as the duke of Suffolke, the marquess of Dorset, the earle of Wiltshire her father, the earles of Arundale Darbie, Rutland, Worcester, Huntington, Sussex, Oxford, and manie bishops and noblemen, every one in his barge, which was a goodlie sight to behold.

Shee thus being accompanied rowed towards the Tower: and in the meane way the ships which were commaunded to lie on the shoare for letting the barges, shotte divers peales of guns, and ere shee landed, there was a marvelous shotte out of the Tower, I never heard the like: and at her landing there mette with her lord chamberleine, with officers if armes, and brought her to the Kinge, which received her with loving countenance at the Posterne by the water side, and kissed her, and then shee turned backe againe, and thanked the maior and the citizens with manie goodlie wordes, and so entered into the Tower.

On Fridaie at dinner served the Kinge all such as were appoynted by his Highnesse to bee Knightes of the Bathe, which after dinner were brought to their chambers, and the night were bathed, and shriven according to the olde usage of England, and the next daie in the morning the Kinge dubbed them according to the ceremonies thereto belonging, whose names hereafter ensue, nineteen in number; the marquess of Dorset; the earle of Darbie; the lord Clifford, sonne and heire to the earle of Cumberland; the lord Fitz-Walter, sonne and heire to the earle of Sussex; the lord Hastings, sonne and heire to the earle of Huntingdon: the lord Montague; the lord Vaux; sir Henry Parker, sonne and heire to the lord Morley; Sir William Winsore, sonne and heire to lord Winsore; Sir John Mordant, sonne and heire to lord Mordant; Sir Francis Weston; Sir Thomas Arondale; Sir John Hudlestone; Sir Thomas Poynings; Sir Henry Savell; Sir George Fitzwilliam of Lincolnshire; Sir John Tindale; Sir Thomas Jerney.

On Saturdaie, the one and thirthieth daie of Maie, the Queene was conveyed through London on order as followeth: to the intent that the horses shoulde not slide on the pavement, nor that the people shoulde bee hurt by horses, the high streetes wherethrough the Queene shoulde passe, were all gravelled from the Tower unto temple-barre, and rayled on each side; within which rayles stoode the craftes along in their order from Grace Church, where the merchants of the Stil-yard stoode untill the little Conduit in Cheape, where the aldermen stoode and on the other side of the streete stoode the constables of the cittie, apparelled in velvet and silke, with great staves in their handes, to cause the people to give roome, and keepe good order; and when the streetes were somewhat ordered, the maior in a gowne of crimosin velvet, and a riche collar of esses, with two footmen clothed in white and red damaske, rode to the Tower, to give his attendance on the Queene, on whom the sheriffes, with their officers, did awaite untill they came to the Tower hill, where they, taking their leave, rode downe the high streetes, commaunding the constables to see roome and good order kept, and so went and stoode by the aldermen in Cheape.

And before the Queene with her traine shoulde come, Grace Streete and Cornhill were hanged with fine scarlet, crimosin, and other grained clothes, and in some places with riche arras/ and the most parte of Cheape was hanged with clothe of tissue, golde, velvet, and manie riche hangings which did make a goodlie shewe; and all the windowes were replenished with ladies and gentlewomen, to beholde the Queene and her traine as they shoulde passe by.

The first of the Queene’s companie that set forward were twelve Frenchmen, belonging unto the French ambassador, clothed in coats of blew velvet, with sleeves of yellow and blew velvet, their horses trapped with close trappers of blew sarsenet poudred with white crosses; after them marched gentlemen, esquires, knights, two and two; after them the judges; after them the Kinghts of the Bate in violet gownes with hoodes purled with miniver like doctors; after them abbots; then barons; after them bishops, the earles and marquesses; then the Lord Chancelor of England; after him the archbishop of York, and the ambassador of Venice, after them the archbishop of Canterburie, and the ambassador of France; after rode two esquires of honor, with robes of estate rolled and worne bauldrike-wise about their neckes, with caps of estate, representing the Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine; after them rode the maior of London with his mace, and Garter in his coate of armes, which bare also his mace of Westminster-hall.

After them rode the lord William Howard with the marshall’s rod, deputy to his brother the duke of Norfolke, Marshall of England, which was ambassador then in France;on his right hand rode Charles, duke of Suffolke, for the daie High Constable of England, bearing the warder of silver appertaining to the office of constableship; and all the lordws for the most part were clothed in crimosin velvet; and all the Queene’s servants or officers of armes in scarlet; next before the Queene rode her chancelor bare-headed; the sergeants and officers at armes rode on both sides of the lordes.

Then came the Queene in a white litter of white clothe of golde, not covered or vailled, which was led by two palfreis clad in white damaske down to the ground, head and all, led by her footment. Shee had on a kirtle of white clothe of tissue, and a mantle of the same furred with armyns (ermine), her haire hanging downe, but on her heade shee had a coife with a circlet about it full of riche stones; over her was borne a canapie of clothe of golde with foure gilte staves and foure silver bels; afor bearing of which canapie were appoynted sixteene knights; foure to beare it one space on foote, and foure another space, according to their own appoyntment; next after the Queene rode the lord Browgh her chamberleine; next after him William Coffin, master of the horses, leading a spare horse with a side-saddle, trappeddowne with clothe of tissue; after him rode seaven ladies in crimosin velvet, turned up with clothe of golde and tissue, and their horses trapped with golde, after them two chariots covered with red clothe of golde.

In the first chariot were two ladies, which were the olde duchesse of Norfolke, and the olde marchionesse of Dorset; in the second chariot were foure ladies all in crimosin velvet; after them rode seaven ladies all in the same suite, their horses trapped and all; after them came the thrid chariot all in white, with sixe ladies in crimosin velvet; next to them came the fourth chariot all red, with eyght ladies also in crimosin; after whom followed thirty gentlewomen all in velvet and silke in the liverie of their ladies on whom they gave attendance; after them followed the guarde in coates of goldsmith’s worke, in which order the rode forthe untill they came to Fan-church.

At Fan-church was made a pageant all of children apparelled like merchants, which wel-coumed her to the cittie, with two proper propositions both in French and in English; and from thence she rode unto Grace-church Corner, where was a costlie and marvellous cunning pagant made by merchants of the Stilyard, wherein was the Mount of Pernassus, with the Fountaine of Helicon, which was of white marble, and foure streames without pipe did rise an ell high, which founaine ranne abudantly with racket Reynishe wine untill night; on the mountain sate Apollo, and at his feet sate Caliope; and on every side of the mountain sate foure Muses playing on severall sweete instrumentes, and at their feete epigrams and poesies were written in golden letters, in which every Muse, according to her property, praysed the Queene.

From thence the Queene with her traine passed to Leadenhall, where was a goolie pageant, with a tippe and heavenly rose; and under the tippe was a goodlie roote of gold set on a little mountaine, environed with red roses and white; out of the tippe came downe a faulcon all white, and set uppon the roote, and incontinent came downe an angell with greate melodie, and set a close crowne of golde on the faulcon’s head: and in the same pagant sate Saint Anne, with all her issue beneath her; and under Mary Cleophe sate her four children; of which children one made a goolie oration to the Queene of the fruitfulness of Saint Anne, and of her genration, trusting that lie fruit shoulde come to her.

Then shee passed to the conduit in Cornhill, where were the three Graces set in a throne, afore whome was the spring of grace, continuallie running wine; afore the fountaine sate a poet, declaring the property of every Grace; that done, every ladie by herself, according to her propertie, gave to the Queene a severall gift of grace. That done, shee passed by the great conduit in Cheape, which was newlie paynted with ares and devises, out of which conduit (by a goodlie fountaine set at the end) ranne continuallie wine, both white and claret, all that afternoon; and so shee rode to the Standard which was richlie paynted with images of kinges and queenes, and hanged with baners of armes; and in the toppe was marvellous sweet harmonie bothe of songs and instrumentes.m

Then shee went forward to the Crosse, which was newlie gilte, untill shee came where the aldermen stoode; and then maister Baker, the recorder, gave to her, in the name of the cittie, a thousande markes in golde, in a purse of golde, which shee thankfully accepted with manie good wordes, and so rode to the little conduit, where was a riche pageant full of melodie and songs, in which pageant was Pallas, Juno, and Venus, and afore them stood Mercurie, which in the name of the three goddesses gave to her, that is to say, Wisedom, Riches, and Felicitie. As shee entered into Paule’s gate there was a pretie pagant, in which sate three ladies richlie clothed; and in a circle on their heads was written ‘Regina Anna, prosper, proceede, and raigne.

From thence shee passed to the easte end of Saint Paules Church against the schoole, where stoode a scaffolde, and children well apparelled, which siad to her divers goodlie verses of poets translated into English, to the honor of the Kinge and her; which she highlie commended. And then shee came to Ludgate, which was newe garnished with golde and bisse, and on the leades of Saint Martin’s Church stoode a goodlie queere of singing men and children, which sang new ballets made in prayse of her Grace.

After that shee was past Ludgate, shee proceeded towards Fleet-street, where the Conduit was newlie panted, and all the armes and angells refreshed, and the shalmes melodiouslie sounding. Uppon the Conduit was made a tower with foure turrets, and in every turret stoode one of the cardinal vertues, with their tokens and properties, which has severall speeches, promising the Queene never to leave her, but to be aiding and comforting her, and in the middest of the tower itself was such several solemne instrumentes, that it seemed to bee an heavenlie noyse, and was much regarded and praysed; and besides the Conduit ranne wine, claret and white, all the afternoone; so shee with all her companie, and the maior, rode forth to Templebarre, which was newlie paynted and repaired, where stode also divers singing men and children, until shee came to Westminster-hall.

Westminster-hall was richlie hanged with clothe of arras, and newlie glased; and in the middest of the hall shee was taken out of her litter; and so ledde up to the high deske under the Clothe of Estate, on whose left had was a cupboard of ten stages high, marvellous riche and beautifull to beholde; and within a little season was brought to the Queene, with a solemne service in great standing, spice plates, a voide of spice, and subtleties, with ipocrasse, and other wines, which shee sent down to her ladies, and when the ladies had drunke, shee gave heartie thanks to the lords and ladies and to the maior, and others that had given their attendance on her; and so withdrewe herself with a fewe ladies to the White-hall, and so to her chamber, and here shifted her; and after went in her barge secretly to the Kinge to his mannor of Westminster, where shee rested all night.

On Whitson-daie, the First of June, 1533, the maior, clad in crimosin velvet, with his coller, and all the aldermen and sheriffes in scarlet, and the councell of the cittie, took their barge at the Crane by seaven of the clocke , and came to Westminster , where they were welcomed and brought into the hall by Mr. Treasurer and others of the Kinge’s house, and so gave their attendance until the Queene shoulde come forth. Betweene eyght and nyne of the clocke shee came into the hall, and stoode under the Clothe of Estate, and then came in the Kinge’s chappell ; and the monks of Westminster, all in rich copes, and mitres, which went into the middest of the hall, and there stoode a season; then there was a rayle of clothe spread from the Queene’s standing in the hall, through the palace and sanctuarie, which was rayled on both sides, to the high altar of Westminster; after that the rayle of clothe was cast, and the officers of armes appointed the order accustomed.


First went gentlemen, then esquires, then knights, then aldermen of London in their cloakes of scarlet cast over their gownes of scarlet. After them the judges in their mantles of scarlet and coifes; then followed the Knights of the Bathe being no lords, every man having a white lace on his left sleeve; then followed barons and viscounts in their parliamentary robes of scarlet; after them came earles, marquesses and dukes, in their robes of estate, of crimosin velvet, furred with armyn, poudred according to their degrees; after them came the lord chancellor in a robe of scarlet, open before, bordered with lettice; after him came the Kinge’s chappell, and the monks solemnely singing, with procession.


Then came abbots and bishops mitred; then sergeants and officers-at-armes, then the maior of London with his mace, and Garter in his coate of armes; then the marquess of Dorset in his robe of estate, which bare the scepter of golde, and the earle of Arundell, which bare the rod of ivoirie with the dove, both together, then alone, the earle of Oxford, High Chamberleine of England, which bare the crowne; after him the duke of Suffolke in his robe of estate, for that daie being High Steward of England, having a long white rod in his hande, and the lord William Howard with the rod of the marshall’s -ship, and every knight of the Garter had on his collar of the order.


Then proceeded forth the Queene , in a circote and robe of purpell velvet, furred with armyn in her hair, coife, and circlet as shee had the Saturdaie; and over her was borne the canapie by foure of the Cinque Ports, all in crimosin, with pointes of blew and red hanging on their sleeves; and the bishops of London and Winchester bare up the laps of the Queene’s robe’ and by her traine, which was verie long, was borne by the olde duchess of Norfolke; after followed ladies being lordes’ wives, which had circotes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, the breast all lettice, with barres of poudres according to their degrees, and over that they had mantles of scarlet furred, and every mantle had lattice about the necke like a neckerchiefe, likewise poudred, so that by the poudreings their degrees might be known; then followed ladies being knights’ wives, in gownes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, without traines , onelie edged with lettice , likewise had all the queene’s gentlewomen.


When shee was thus brought to the high place made in the middest of the church, betweene the queere and the high altar, shee was set in a riche chaire; and after that shee had rested a while, shee descended downe unto the high altar, and there prostrated herselfe, which then the archbishop of Canterburie saide certain collects over her. Then shee rose, and the bishop anointed her on the head and on the breast, and then shee was led uppe againe to her chaire, where, after divers orisons saide, the archbishope set the crowne of Saint Edward on her head, and then delivered her the scepter of golde in her right hande, and then rod of ivorie with the dove in her left hande; and then all the queere sung Te Deum; which done, the bishop tooke off the crowne of Saint Edward, being heavie, and set on her head the crowne made for her.

An so went to masse; and when the offering was bugunne shee descended down and offered, being crowned, and so ascended uppe againe, and sate in her chaire till Agnus was sayd, and then shee went downe and kneeled befoe the high altar, where shee received of the archbishop the holy sacrament, and then went up to the place again.

After that masse was done, shee went to Saint Edward’s shrine, and there offered; after which offering done, shee withdrewe into a little place made for the purpose on the one side of the queere. Now in the meane season every duchesse put on her bonet a coronell of golde; and every countesse a plaine circle of golde without flowers; and every king-at-armes put on a crowne of copper and gilte; all which was worne until night.

When the Queene had a little reposed her, the companie returned in the same order that they set forth, and the Queene went crowned, and so did the ladies aforesaid. Her right hand was sustained by the earle of Wiltshire her father, and her lefte hand by the lord Talbot, deputy for the earle of Shrewsbury and lord Furnivall his father. And when shee was out of the sanctuarie within the palace, the trumpets played marveylous freshly, and so shee was brought to Westminster-hall, and so to her withdrawing chamber: during which time the lordes, judges, maior, and aldermen, put off their robes, mantles, and cloakes, and tooke their hoodes from their neckes, and cast them about their shoulders; and the lordes sate onely in their circotes; and the judges and aldermen in their gownes; and all the lordes that served that day served in their circotes, and their hoodes about their shoulders; also divers officers of the King’e house, being no lords, had circotes and hoodes of scarlet, edged with miniver, as Treasurer, Controller, and Master of the Jewell-House, but their circotes were not gilt.

While the Queen was in her chamber, every lord and other that ought to do service at coronations, did prepare them according to their dutie; as the duke of Suffolke, High Stewarde of England, which was richely appareled, his dublet and jacket set with orient pearle, his gowne crimosin velvet embrothered, his courser trapped with a close trapper, head and all to the ground of crimosin velvet, set full of letters of golde and goldesmithes worke, having a long white rod in his hande; on his left hande rode the lord William, deputie for his brother, as earle marshall, with the marshall’s rod, who gowne was of crimosin velvet, and his horse trapper purpell velvet cutte on white satin, embrothered with white lions.

The earle of Oxford was High Chamberleine; the earle of Essex carver; the earle of Sussex sewer; the earle of Arundell chiefe butler, on whom twelve citizens of London did give their attendance at the cupboard; the earle of Darbie cupbearer; the viscount Lisle panter; the lord Burgenny chiefe larder; the lord Bray almoner for him and his copartners; and the maior of Oxforde kept the buttery-bar; and Thomas Wyatt was chosen ewerer for Sir Henry Wyatt his father.

When all things were ready and ordered, the Queene under her canapie came into the hall and washed, and sate downe in the middest of the table under her clothe of estate; on the right hande side of her chaire stood the countesse of Oxford, widow, and on her left hande stoode the countesse of Worcester all the dinner season, which divers times in the dinner time did hold a fine clothe before the Queene’s face when she list to spit, or doe otherwise at her pleasure; and at the table’s end sat ethe archbishop of Canterburie; on the right hande of the Queene, and in the middest betweene the archbishop and the countesse of Oxford, stoode the earle of Oxford with a white staffe all dinner time.

At the Queene’s feet under the table sate two gentlewomen all dinner time. When all these things were thus ordered, came in the duke of Suffolke and the lord William Howard on horseback, and the sergeants-of-armes before them, and after them the Sewer, and then the Knights of the Bathe, bringing in the first course, which was eyght and twentie dishes, besides subtleties, and shippes made of ware, marveylous gorgeous to beholde; all which time of service the trumpets, standing in the windowe at the meather end of the hall, played.

When shee was served of two dishes, then the archbiship’s service was set downe, whose ewer came equall with the third dishe of the Queene’s service on his left hande. After that the Queene and the archbishop were served, the Barons of the Ports began the table on the right hande next to the wall; then at the table sate the maisters and clearkes of the Chancerie; and beneath them other doctors and gentlemen. The table next the wall on the left hande by the cupboard was begunne by the maior and aldermen, the chamberliene and councell of the cittie of London; and beneath them sate substantiall merchants, and so downeward other worshipfull persons.

At the table on the right hande, in the middest of the hall, sate the lord chancellor, and other temporall lordes, on the right hande of the table in their circotes; and on the left side of the same table sate bishops and abbots in their parliament robes; beneath them sate the judges, sergeants, beneath them the Knights of the Bathe. At the table on the left hande in the middest part sate duchesses, marchionesses, countesses, baronesses in their robes, and other ladies in circotes, and the gentlewomen in gownes, all which gentlewomen and ladies sate on the left side of the table along, and none on the right side; and when all were thus set, they were incontinent served so quicklie that it was marveylous; for the servitors gave so goode attendance, that meate, nor drinke, nor anything else needed to be called for, which in so great a multitude was marvell.

As touching the fare, there coulde be devised no more costlie dishes nor subtleties. The maior of London was served with foure and thirtie dishes at two courses and so were all his brethren, and such as sate at his table. The Queeene had at her second course founre and twentie dishes, and thirtie at the third course; and betweene the last courses, the kinges-at-armes were crowned and other officers-at-armes cryed “Larges!” in three partes of the hall, and after stoode in their place, which was in the beckens of the Kinges Benche; and on the right hande, out of the cloister of Saint Stephen’s Chappell, was made a little closet, in which the Kinge with divers ambassadors stoode to behold the service. The duke of Suffolke and the lord William rode oftentimes about the hall, cheering the lordes, ladies, and the maior and his brethren.

After they in the hall had dined, they had wafers and ipocrase, and then they washed, and were commaunded to rise and stande still in their places before the tables, or on the fourmes, until the Queene had washed. When shee had taken wafers and ipocrase, the tables were taken uppe, and the earle of Rutland brought up the surnape and laid it at the board’s end, which immediately was drawne and cast by Mr. Reade, marshall of the hall, and the Queene washed, and afterward the surnape was withdrawn.

Then shee rose, and stoode in the middest of the hall-place, to whom the earle of Sussex, in goodlie spice plate, brought a voide of spice and confections. After him the maior of London brought a standing cuppe of golde, set in a cuppe of assay of golde; and after that shee had drunke shee gave the maior the cuppe, with the cuppe of assay, because there was no cover, according to the claim of the cittie, thanking him and all his brethren of their paine.

Then shee under her canapie departed to her chamber; and at the entry of her chamber shee gave the canapie, with bels and all, to the Barons of the Ports according to their claim, with great thanks; then the maior of London, bearing his cuppe in his hande, with his brethren, went through the hall to their barge, and so did all other noblemen and gentlemen, for it was sixe of the clocke.”

Henry VIII's bed

I've been thinking strongly about finishing the Henry VIII style gown this year and I have been collecting images about clothing in 1530's England.  I ran across this description of Henry VIII's bed and wondered how imposing it might have been to the women who shared it.  I


Bed of Henry VIII
From:

Designs for Parsonage Houses, Alms Houses: Etc. Etc. with Examples of Gables, and Other Curious Remains of Old English Architecture by Thomas F. Hunt

books.google.com/books?id=AdI0AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA190&dq=inventory+anne+bullen&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NhbaUuztH8HyoATYrIHwAg&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBjge#v=onepage&q=inventory%20anne%

I took a little side trip to see how I am doing on being able to read cooking manuscripts.  Not too bad!  At first I was a thinking whoa, this is too hard, but then I remembered that I have to practice before I can read these things.  I started an index for this, and got through the first 25 pages and the manuscript came to life!

There are several sausage recipes and I continue to bring them to the internet here with an entry from page 53.  I think this one is especially interesting for its precise finishing instructions.  You can see the original here: http://dlib.gnm.de/item/Hs18909/52/html/z600

(a lot is about a half ounce)

To make good Italian sausage three ways as follows:
Firstly, take 26 pounds of fatty meat
8 pounds of beef stomachs
2 hearts that weigh 3 pounds
3 lots ginger
1 lot crushed cloves
1 lot trisanet (cinnamon/sugar & varying spice based mixture)
1 lot mace
also take for each pound of meat 3 lots of salt, that is 102 lots---
more for each one 1/2 lots of pepper (that) is 17 lots
take thereunder also a glass(small) of wine take
in total to 2/3 of the meat one (part) must be a third
beef so is this this correct version of Italian sausage

For the second so you will make long Italian sausages
Take 12 pounds meat
28 lots salt
3 lots pepper
6 lots fennel

For the third if you want to make so that
they are lumpy
14 1/2 pounds of lean meat
2 pounds of diced bacon (fat)
2 hearts that should weigh 3 pounds
1 pound 8 lots ginger
1 lot ground cloves
2 lots trisanet
1 lot mace
8 lots pepper
2 nutmegs
there to a small glass of wine

Here follows the preparation of the above
stated sausage
Firstly, if you want to make sausage so must
one take the fat and lean meat that were listed
above and chop the same small next make for each
version its ingredients
mix well together then take the above or
if there is intestine and one fills therein then take a
needle with it stuff everything there in so that these stuff better
and thicker on top of itself then bind off all
securely and leg it in salt 40 hours then take
it out and hang in the chimney and make under them
a good smoke only a day until they dry and the
salt therein crusts then hang then in the kitchen
or in a place that has little warmth let hang for 2
months and lay then take oil
so they will each stay better longer and remain good 2 years
Read the German hereCollapse )

Sauerkraut history - lost in translation

This is taken from Das Ackerwerk by Lucii Columellae and Palladii (1536) - an ancient Roman text.  It is clear that it is a translation of the Latin text "De Re Rustica", and there is some difficulty with the translator identifying the original plants.    One of the big problems is that looking up some of the plant names in 16th century herbals give poisonous plants (note the *)!  However, there is a 1725 English version here, which sounds like it has translated the terms more reasonably:
http://books.google.com/books?id=qcNbAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=agriculture+columella&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X5ovUo_yGOHNiwLrj4HQCg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=cabbage&f=false
But I note that it differs from the German (the English version has more words for one).  These may well be differences in how the original translators handled the text.  But at any rate, pickled cabbage seems to be of some antiquity.  It may be fun to look at the original latin and the French version.  Read the English version - it has interesting bits, including the manner of preparing the brine!



Which plants one lays in for each quarter of the year / and how the same should be marinated /
The Seventh Chapter

As now such that is ready to be prepared / one should in Spring (when day and night
are similar) plants for such usage are collected and held/
such as are / cabbage buds and stems / head cabbage / celery stalks / rue/
"horse fennel" with its stalk when it emerges/ flower from
wild parsnips / or also the cultivated parsnip buds /
the flowers from wild tarrgon when they have bolted / asparagus / rushes
pennyroyal / catmint / wild mangold / buttercups*/ and the tender buds
of fennel.  These things one may prepare in a singular way that is
that one takes two parts vinegar / and one part salt water.  But the flowers
of the byrony* / rushes / asparagus/ parsnips and catmint / these one
may especially lay in and sprinkle with salt and hold for two days in
the shade / until they become sweaty / then one lays them in / and if they
make too much moisture / then one washes them off with their own liquid
if not / one should pour over as much saltwater / and wash them / then one
presses the water back out / and lays each kind in its own dish and
pours the above written liquid over them of two parts vinegar and one part
saltwater / then one lays dried fennel that was gathered the previous autumn /
thereon / then one lays a weight on the greens so that they are pressed
beneath it / and the liquid goes over the greens.  When the "horse fennel" /
fennel (ferulam) and ordinary fennel / so lay it in the shade until it becomes
wilted / then pull from them all the leaves and wood / and if the stems are
larger than a thumb / so split them with a tube into 2 parts / and of the
flowers so that they are not too thick one should also pull them from one
another and part them / and then lay them in a dish / the above written liquid
poured over them / also sometimes spread well over it laser or silphium root /
and lastly cover it with dried fennel greens and weigh it down so the liquid goes
over it / cabbages / head cabbage / buttercups* and pennyroyal / one should
let them lay in the shade somewhat long until they become wilted / and then
marinate them like savory / thyme / tarragon.  Or rather lay tarragon only in salt water
without vinegar / then when one would have need of it / wash it with wine
or water / pour oil over it and eat it.  One may also marinate and keep green savory
and green thyme.

* poisonous

Sauerkraut history - don't eat too much!


From:
Kurtze Beschreibung der Natur ... und Gebrauch in Speiß und Trank (1549)

Brassica - Leaf cabbage and head cabbage, leaf cabbage and
and head cabbage / are in Germany in ordinary kitchens/
especially for the manual laborers/ and the common
man / who [have] the largest hardest burden /and take it for daily
food / and grease their hungry stomachs / and as
in Bavaria / sometimes in one day / three or four times
cabbage or sauerkraut is taken / it gives an
unhealthy bad nourishment / and causes a
coarse thick melancholy blood / it ruins the face...

It goes on to tell that it creates fantastical dreams.

Next up some actual instructions for making sauerkraut and preserving leaf vegetables and how to properly prepare the salt water brine.  Part of the learning curve was understanding that there were some seeming 99 names for cabbage!
 

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