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The Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Warrior Weasel
The Coronation of Anne Boleyn was held from Thursday to Sunday.  The source for this is "A History of the Coronation" by W. J. Passingham, pages 171 - 185. Every part of the ceremony is lavish, and I marvel at how Henry must have felt for Anne.

Part One – Thursday – The River Procession to the Tower

In the month of Maie (1533), THE Kinges Highnesse addressed his letters to the maior and communalitie of London, signifying unto them that his pleasure was to solemnize the coronation of his most deare and welbeloved wife, Queene Anne, at Westminster, on Whitson-daie next ensuing, willing them to make preparation, as well to fetch her Grace from Greenewich to the Tower by water, as to see the cittie garnished with pageants in places accustomed, for the honour of her Grace, when shee shoulde be conveyed from the Tower to Westminster.

Whereupon a common councell was called, and commaundment given to the Haberdashers, of which craft the maior was, that they shoulde prepare a barge for the bachelors, with a master and a foyste, garnished with banners, like as they use when the maior is presented at Westminster on the morrowe after the feast of Saint Simon and Jude. Also all other crafts were commaunded to prepare barges, and to set up all such seemely banners and bannerets, as they had in their halles, or could get to furnish their said barges; and every barge to have minstrels. According to which commaundment great preparation was made for all things necessarie for such a noble triumph.

The twentie ninth daie of Maie, being Thursdaie, the maior and his brethren, all in scarlet, and such as were knights, had collars of esses, and the residue having great chaines, and the councell of the cittie assembled with them at Saint Marie Hill; and at one of the clocke descended to the newe staire to their barge, which was garnished with manie goodlie banners and streamers, and richlie covered, in which barges was shalmes, shage-bushes, and divers other instruments of musicke which played continually.

After the maior and his brethren were in their barge, seeing that the companies, to the number of fiftie barges, were readie to wayte upon them, they gave commaundment to the companies that no barge shoulder rowe nearer to another than twice the length of the barge; and to see the order kept, there were three wherries prepared, and in every part two officers to call upon them to keepe their order.

After which commaundment given, they set forth in order as hereafter described. First, before the maior’s barge, was a foyste, for a wafter full of ordinance, in which foyste was a great red dragon, continually moving and casting wild fire; and round about the said foyste stoode terrible monstrous and wilde men casting fire, and making hideous noyse; next after the foist a good distance came the maior’s barge, in which were trumpets, and divers other melodious instruments: the deckers of the said barge, and saile yards, and the top castles, were hanged with rich clothe of gold and silke; and the foreship and stern were two great banners, riche beaten with the armes of the Kinge and Queene; and on the top castle also was a long streamer newlie beaten with the sayde armes.

The sides of the barge were set full of flags and banners of the devices of the companies of Haberdashers and Merchant Adventurers, and the lassiters or cordes, were hanged with innumerable pensels, having little bels at the endes, which made a goodlie noyse, and was a goodlie sight, wavering in the wind: on the outside of the barge were three dozen scutcheons, in metal, of the armes of the Kinge and Queene, which were beaten upon square buckeram divided, so that the right side had the Kinge’s colours, and the left side the Queene’s: which scutcheons were fastened on the clothes of golde and silver hanging on the deckes: on the left hand of the maior was another foyste, in the which was a mount, and on the mount stoode a white faulcon, crowned with a roote of golde, enfironed with white roses and red, which was the Queene’s device; about which mount sate virgins singing and playing melodiously.

Next after the maior followed his fellowship, the Haberdashers; next after them the Mercers; then the Grocers; and so every companie in his order; and last of all the maior’s and sheriffe’s officers; every companie having melodie in their barge by themselves, and goodlie garnished with banners, and some covered with silke, and some with arras or such like, which was a goodlie sight to behold; and in this order they rowed by Greenewich to a poynte beyond, and there they turned backwards in another order, that is, to wit, the maior’s and sheriffes’ officers first, and the meanest craft next, and so according to the uppermost craft in order and the maior last, as they go to Paules at Christmas; and in that order they rode downeward to Greenewich towne, and there cast anchor, making great melodie.

At three of the clocke, the Queene, appareled in riche clothe of golde, entered into her barge, accompanied with divers ladies and gentlewomen; and incontinent the citizens set forward in their order, their minstrels continuallie playing, and the bachelors’ barge going on to the Queene’s right hand, which shee tooke great pleasure to beholde. About the Queens’ barge were manie noblemen, as the duke of Suffolke, the marquess of Dorset, the earle of Wiltshire her father, the earles of Arundale Darbie, Rutland, Worcester, Huntington, Sussex, Oxford, and manie bishops and noblemen, every one in his barge, which was a goodlie sight to behold.

Shee thus being accompanied rowed towards the Tower: and in the meane way the ships which were commaunded to lie on the shoare for letting the barges, shotte divers peales of guns, and ere shee landed, there was a marvelous shotte out of the Tower, I never heard the like: and at her landing there mette with her lord chamberleine, with officers if armes, and brought her to the Kinge, which received her with loving countenance at the Posterne by the water side, and kissed her, and then shee turned backe againe, and thanked the maior and the citizens with manie goodlie wordes, and so entered into the Tower.

On Fridaie at dinner served the Kinge all such as were appoynted by his Highnesse to bee Knightes of the Bathe, which after dinner were brought to their chambers, and the night were bathed, and shriven according to the olde usage of England, and the next daie in the morning the Kinge dubbed them according to the ceremonies thereto belonging, whose names hereafter ensue, nineteen in number; the marquess of Dorset; the earle of Darbie; the lord Clifford, sonne and heire to the earle of Cumberland; the lord Fitz-Walter, sonne and heire to the earle of Sussex; the lord Hastings, sonne and heire to the earle of Huntingdon: the lord Montague; the lord Vaux; sir Henry Parker, sonne and heire to the lord Morley; Sir William Winsore, sonne and heire to lord Winsore; Sir John Mordant, sonne and heire to lord Mordant; Sir Francis Weston; Sir Thomas Arondale; Sir John Hudlestone; Sir Thomas Poynings; Sir Henry Savell; Sir George Fitzwilliam of Lincolnshire; Sir John Tindale; Sir Thomas Jerney.

On Saturdaie, the one and thirthieth daie of Maie, the Queene was conveyed through London on order as followeth: to the intent that the horses shoulde not slide on the pavement, nor that the people shoulde bee hurt by horses, the high streetes wherethrough the Queene shoulde passe, were all gravelled from the Tower unto temple-barre, and rayled on each side; within which rayles stoode the craftes along in their order from Grace Church, where the merchants of the Stil-yard stoode untill the little Conduit in Cheape, where the aldermen stoode and on the other side of the streete stoode the constables of the cittie, apparelled in velvet and silke, with great staves in their handes, to cause the people to give roome, and keepe good order; and when the streetes were somewhat ordered, the maior in a gowne of crimosin velvet, and a riche collar of esses, with two footmen clothed in white and red damaske, rode to the Tower, to give his attendance on the Queene, on whom the sheriffes, with their officers, did awaite untill they came to the Tower hill, where they, taking their leave, rode downe the high streetes, commaunding the constables to see roome and good order kept, and so went and stoode by the aldermen in Cheape.

And before the Queene with her traine shoulde come, Grace Streete and Cornhill were hanged with fine scarlet, crimosin, and other grained clothes, and in some places with riche arras/ and the most parte of Cheape was hanged with clothe of tissue, golde, velvet, and manie riche hangings which did make a goodlie shewe; and all the windowes were replenished with ladies and gentlewomen, to beholde the Queene and her traine as they shoulde passe by.

The first of the Queene’s companie that set forward were twelve Frenchmen, belonging unto the French ambassador, clothed in coats of blew velvet, with sleeves of yellow and blew velvet, their horses trapped with close trappers of blew sarsenet poudred with white crosses; after them marched gentlemen, esquires, knights, two and two; after them the judges; after them the Kinghts of the Bate in violet gownes with hoodes purled with miniver like doctors; after them abbots; then barons; after them bishops, the earles and marquesses; then the Lord Chancelor of England; after him the archbishop of York, and the ambassador of Venice, after them the archbishop of Canterburie, and the ambassador of France; after rode two esquires of honor, with robes of estate rolled and worne bauldrike-wise about their neckes, with caps of estate, representing the Dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine; after them rode the maior of London with his mace, and Garter in his coate of armes, which bare also his mace of Westminster-hall.

After them rode the lord William Howard with the marshall’s rod, deputy to his brother the duke of Norfolke, Marshall of England, which was ambassador then in France;on his right hand rode Charles, duke of Suffolke, for the daie High Constable of England, bearing the warder of silver appertaining to the office of constableship; and all the lordws for the most part were clothed in crimosin velvet; and all the Queene’s servants or officers of armes in scarlet; next before the Queene rode her chancelor bare-headed; the sergeants and officers at armes rode on both sides of the lordes.

Then came the Queene in a white litter of white clothe of golde, not covered or vailled, which was led by two palfreis clad in white damaske down to the ground, head and all, led by her footment. Shee had on a kirtle of white clothe of tissue, and a mantle of the same furred with armyns (ermine), her haire hanging downe, but on her heade shee had a coife with a circlet about it full of riche stones; over her was borne a canapie of clothe of golde with foure gilte staves and foure silver bels; afor bearing of which canapie were appoynted sixteene knights; foure to beare it one space on foote, and foure another space, according to their own appoyntment; next after the Queene rode the lord Browgh her chamberleine; next after him William Coffin, master of the horses, leading a spare horse with a side-saddle, trappeddowne with clothe of tissue; after him rode seaven ladies in crimosin velvet, turned up with clothe of golde and tissue, and their horses trapped with golde, after them two chariots covered with red clothe of golde.

In the first chariot were two ladies, which were the olde duchesse of Norfolke, and the olde marchionesse of Dorset; in the second chariot were foure ladies all in crimosin velvet; after them rode seaven ladies all in the same suite, their horses trapped and all; after them came the thrid chariot all in white, with sixe ladies in crimosin velvet; next to them came the fourth chariot all red, with eyght ladies also in crimosin; after whom followed thirty gentlewomen all in velvet and silke in the liverie of their ladies on whom they gave attendance; after them followed the guarde in coates of goldsmith’s worke, in which order the rode forthe untill they came to Fan-church.

At Fan-church was made a pageant all of children apparelled like merchants, which wel-coumed her to the cittie, with two proper propositions both in French and in English; and from thence she rode unto Grace-church Corner, where was a costlie and marvellous cunning pagant made by merchants of the Stilyard, wherein was the Mount of Pernassus, with the Fountaine of Helicon, which was of white marble, and foure streames without pipe did rise an ell high, which founaine ranne abudantly with racket Reynishe wine untill night; on the mountain sate Apollo, and at his feet sate Caliope; and on every side of the mountain sate foure Muses playing on severall sweete instrumentes, and at their feete epigrams and poesies were written in golden letters, in which every Muse, according to her property, praysed the Queene.

From thence the Queene with her traine passed to Leadenhall, where was a goolie pageant, with a tippe and heavenly rose; and under the tippe was a goodlie roote of gold set on a little mountaine, environed with red roses and white; out of the tippe came downe a faulcon all white, and set uppon the roote, and incontinent came downe an angell with greate melodie, and set a close crowne of golde on the faulcon’s head: and in the same pagant sate Saint Anne, with all her issue beneath her; and under Mary Cleophe sate her four children; of which children one made a goolie oration to the Queene of the fruitfulness of Saint Anne, and of her genration, trusting that lie fruit shoulde come to her.

Then shee passed to the conduit in Cornhill, where were the three Graces set in a throne, afore whome was the spring of grace, continuallie running wine; afore the fountaine sate a poet, declaring the property of every Grace; that done, every ladie by herself, according to her propertie, gave to the Queene a severall gift of grace. That done, shee passed by the great conduit in Cheape, which was newlie paynted with ares and devises, out of which conduit (by a goodlie fountaine set at the end) ranne continuallie wine, both white and claret, all that afternoon; and so shee rode to the Standard which was richlie paynted with images of kinges and queenes, and hanged with baners of armes; and in the toppe was marvellous sweet harmonie bothe of songs and instrumentes.m

Then shee went forward to the Crosse, which was newlie gilte, untill shee came where the aldermen stoode; and then maister Baker, the recorder, gave to her, in the name of the cittie, a thousande markes in golde, in a purse of golde, which shee thankfully accepted with manie good wordes, and so rode to the little conduit, where was a riche pageant full of melodie and songs, in which pageant was Pallas, Juno, and Venus, and afore them stood Mercurie, which in the name of the three goddesses gave to her, that is to say, Wisedom, Riches, and Felicitie. As shee entered into Paule’s gate there was a pretie pagant, in which sate three ladies richlie clothed; and in a circle on their heads was written ‘Regina Anna, prosper, proceede, and raigne.

From thence shee passed to the easte end of Saint Paules Church against the schoole, where stoode a scaffolde, and children well apparelled, which siad to her divers goodlie verses of poets translated into English, to the honor of the Kinge and her; which she highlie commended. And then shee came to Ludgate, which was newe garnished with golde and bisse, and on the leades of Saint Martin’s Church stoode a goodlie queere of singing men and children, which sang new ballets made in prayse of her Grace.

After that shee was past Ludgate, shee proceeded towards Fleet-street, where the Conduit was newlie panted, and all the armes and angells refreshed, and the shalmes melodiouslie sounding. Uppon the Conduit was made a tower with foure turrets, and in every turret stoode one of the cardinal vertues, with their tokens and properties, which has severall speeches, promising the Queene never to leave her, but to be aiding and comforting her, and in the middest of the tower itself was such several solemne instrumentes, that it seemed to bee an heavenlie noyse, and was much regarded and praysed; and besides the Conduit ranne wine, claret and white, all the afternoone; so shee with all her companie, and the maior, rode forth to Templebarre, which was newlie paynted and repaired, where stode also divers singing men and children, until shee came to Westminster-hall.

Westminster-hall was richlie hanged with clothe of arras, and newlie glased; and in the middest of the hall shee was taken out of her litter; and so ledde up to the high deske under the Clothe of Estate, on whose left had was a cupboard of ten stages high, marvellous riche and beautifull to beholde; and within a little season was brought to the Queene, with a solemne service in great standing, spice plates, a voide of spice, and subtleties, with ipocrasse, and other wines, which shee sent down to her ladies, and when the ladies had drunke, shee gave heartie thanks to the lords and ladies and to the maior, and others that had given their attendance on her; and so withdrewe herself with a fewe ladies to the White-hall, and so to her chamber, and here shifted her; and after went in her barge secretly to the Kinge to his mannor of Westminster, where shee rested all night.

On Whitson-daie, the First of June, 1533, the maior, clad in crimosin velvet, with his coller, and all the aldermen and sheriffes in scarlet, and the councell of the cittie, took their barge at the Crane by seaven of the clocke , and came to Westminster , where they were welcomed and brought into the hall by Mr. Treasurer and others of the Kinge’s house, and so gave their attendance until the Queene shoulde come forth. Betweene eyght and nyne of the clocke shee came into the hall, and stoode under the Clothe of Estate, and then came in the Kinge’s chappell ; and the monks of Westminster, all in rich copes, and mitres, which went into the middest of the hall, and there stoode a season; then there was a rayle of clothe spread from the Queene’s standing in the hall, through the palace and sanctuarie, which was rayled on both sides, to the high altar of Westminster; after that the rayle of clothe was cast, and the officers of armes appointed the order accustomed.

First went gentlemen, then esquires, then knights, then aldermen of London in their cloakes of scarlet cast over their gownes of scarlet. After them the judges in their mantles of scarlet and coifes; then followed the Knights of the Bathe being no lords, every man having a white lace on his left sleeve; then followed barons and viscounts in their parliamentary robes of scarlet; after them came earles, marquesses and dukes, in their robes of estate, of crimosin velvet, furred with armyn, poudred according to their degrees; after them came the lord chancellor in a robe of scarlet, open before, bordered with lettice; after him came the Kinge’s chappell, and the monks solemnely singing, with procession.

Then came abbots and bishops mitred; then sergeants and officers-at-armes, then the maior of London with his mace, and Garter in his coate of armes; then the marquess of Dorset in his robe of estate, which bare the scepter of golde, and the earle of Arundell, which bare the rod of ivoirie with the dove, both together, then alone, the earle of Oxford, High Chamberleine of England, which bare the crowne; after him the duke of Suffolke in his robe of estate, for that daie being High Steward of England, having a long white rod in his hande, and the lord William Howard with the rod of the marshall’s -ship, and every knight of the Garter had on his collar of the order.

Then proceeded forth the Queene , in a circote and robe of purpell velvet, furred with armyn in her hair, coife, and circlet as shee had the Saturdaie; and over her was borne the canapie by foure of the Cinque Ports, all in crimosin, with pointes of blew and red hanging on their sleeves; and the bishops of London and Winchester bare up the laps of the Queene’s robe’ and by her traine, which was verie long, was borne by the olde duchess of Norfolke; after followed ladies being lordes’ wives, which had circotes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, the breast all lettice, with barres of poudres according to their degrees, and over that they had mantles of scarlet furred, and every mantle had lattice about the necke like a neckerchiefe, likewise poudred, so that by the poudreings their degrees might be known; then followed ladies being knights’ wives, in gownes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, without traines , onelie edged with lettice , likewise had all the queene’s gentlewomen.

When shee was thus brought to the high place made in the middest of the church, betweene the queere and the high altar, shee was set in a riche chaire; and after that shee had rested a while, shee descended downe unto the high altar, and there prostrated herselfe, which then the archbishop of Canterburie saide certain collects over her. Then shee rose, and the bishop anointed her on the head and on the breast, and then shee was led uppe againe to her chaire, where, after divers orisons saide, the archbishope set the crowne of Saint Edward on her head, and then delivered her the scepter of golde in her right hande, and then rod of ivorie with the dove in her left hande; and then all the queere sung Te Deum; which done, the bishop tooke off the crowne of Saint Edward, being heavie, and set on her head the crowne made for her.

An so went to masse; and when the offering was bugunne shee descended down and offered, being crowned, and so ascended uppe againe, and sate in her chaire till Agnus was sayd, and then shee went downe and kneeled befoe the high altar, where shee received of the archbishop the holy sacrament, and then went up to the place again.

After that masse was done, shee went to Saint Edward’s shrine, and there offered; after which offering done, shee withdrewe into a little place made for the purpose on the one side of the queere. Now in the meane season every duchesse put on her bonet a coronell of golde; and every countesse a plaine circle of golde without flowers; and every king-at-armes put on a crowne of copper and gilte; all which was worne until night.

When the Queene had a little reposed her, the companie returned in the same order that they set forth, and the Queene went crowned, and so did the ladies aforesaid. Her right hand was sustained by the earle of Wiltshire her father, and her lefte hand by the lord Talbot, deputy for the earle of Shrewsbury and lord Furnivall his father. And when shee was out of the sanctuarie within the palace, the trumpets played marveylous freshly, and so shee was brought to Westminster-hall, and so to her withdrawing chamber: during which time the lordes, judges, maior, and aldermen, put off their robes, mantles, and cloakes, and tooke their hoodes from their neckes, and cast them about their shoulders; and the lordes sate onely in their circotes; and the judges and aldermen in their gownes; and all the lordes that served that day served in their circotes, and their hoodes about their shoulders; also divers officers of the King’e house, being no lords, had circotes and hoodes of scarlet, edged with miniver, as Treasurer, Controller, and Master of the Jewell-House, but their circotes were not gilt.

While the Queen was in her chamber, every lord and other that ought to do service at coronations, did prepare them according to their dutie; as the duke of Suffolke, High Stewarde of England, which was richely appareled, his dublet and jacket set with orient pearle, his gowne crimosin velvet embrothered, his courser trapped with a close trapper, head and all to the ground of crimosin velvet, set full of letters of golde and goldesmithes worke, having a long white rod in his hande; on his left hande rode the lord William, deputie for his brother, as earle marshall, with the marshall’s rod, who gowne was of crimosin velvet, and his horse trapper purpell velvet cutte on white satin, embrothered with white lions.

The earle of Oxford was High Chamberleine; the earle of Essex carver; the earle of Sussex sewer; the earle of Arundell chiefe butler, on whom twelve citizens of London did give their attendance at the cupboard; the earle of Darbie cupbearer; the viscount Lisle panter; the lord Burgenny chiefe larder; the lord Bray almoner for him and his copartners; and the maior of Oxforde kept the buttery-bar; and Thomas Wyatt was chosen ewerer for Sir Henry Wyatt his father.

When all things were ready and ordered, the Queene under her canapie came into the hall and washed, and sate downe in the middest of the table under her clothe of estate; on the right hande side of her chaire stood the countesse of Oxford, widow, and on her left hande stoode the countesse of Worcester all the dinner season, which divers times in the dinner time did hold a fine clothe before the Queene’s face when she list to spit, or doe otherwise at her pleasure; and at the table’s end sat ethe archbishop of Canterburie; on the right hande of the Queene, and in the middest betweene the archbishop and the countesse of Oxford, stoode the earle of Oxford with a white staffe all dinner time.

At the Queene’s feet under the table sate two gentlewomen all dinner time. When all these things were thus ordered, came in the duke of Suffolke and the lord William Howard on horseback, and the sergeants-of-armes before them, and after them the Sewer, and then the Knights of the Bathe, bringing in the first course, which was eyght and twentie dishes, besides subtleties, and shippes made of ware, marveylous gorgeous to beholde; all which time of service the trumpets, standing in the windowe at the meather end of the hall, played.

When shee was served of two dishes, then the archbiship’s service was set downe, whose ewer came equall with the third dishe of the Queene’s service on his left hande. After that the Queene and the archbishop were served, the Barons of the Ports began the table on the right hande next to the wall; then at the table sate the maisters and clearkes of the Chancerie; and beneath them other doctors and gentlemen. The table next the wall on the left hande by the cupboard was begunne by the maior and aldermen, the chamberliene and councell of the cittie of London; and beneath them sate substantiall merchants, and so downeward other worshipfull persons.

At the table on the right hande, in the middest of the hall, sate the lord chancellor, and other temporall lordes, on the right hande of the table in their circotes; and on the left side of the same table sate bishops and abbots in their parliament robes; beneath them sate the judges, sergeants, beneath them the Knights of the Bathe. At the table on the left hande in the middest part sate duchesses, marchionesses, countesses, baronesses in their robes, and other ladies in circotes, and the gentlewomen in gownes, all which gentlewomen and ladies sate on the left side of the table along, and none on the right side; and when all were thus set, they were incontinent served so quicklie that it was marveylous; for the servitors gave so goode attendance, that meate, nor drinke, nor anything else needed to be called for, which in so great a multitude was marvell.

As touching the fare, there coulde be devised no more costlie dishes nor subtleties. The maior of London was served with foure and thirtie dishes at two courses and so were all his brethren, and such as sate at his table. The Queeene had at her second course founre and twentie dishes, and thirtie at the third course; and betweene the last courses, the kinges-at-armes were crowned and other officers-at-armes cryed “Larges!” in three partes of the hall, and after stoode in their place, which was in the beckens of the Kinges Benche; and on the right hande, out of the cloister of Saint Stephen’s Chappell, was made a little closet, in which the Kinge with divers ambassadors stoode to behold the service. The duke of Suffolke and the lord William rode oftentimes about the hall, cheering the lordes, ladies, and the maior and his brethren.

After they in the hall had dined, they had wafers and ipocrase, and then they washed, and were commaunded to rise and stande still in their places before the tables, or on the fourmes, until the Queene had washed. When shee had taken wafers and ipocrase, the tables were taken uppe, and the earle of Rutland brought up the surnape and laid it at the board’s end, which immediately was drawne and cast by Mr. Reade, marshall of the hall, and the Queene washed, and afterward the surnape was withdrawn.

Then shee rose, and stoode in the middest of the hall-place, to whom the earle of Sussex, in goodlie spice plate, brought a voide of spice and confections. After him the maior of London brought a standing cuppe of golde, set in a cuppe of assay of golde; and after that shee had drunke shee gave the maior the cuppe, with the cuppe of assay, because there was no cover, according to the claim of the cittie, thanking him and all his brethren of their paine.

Then shee under her canapie departed to her chamber; and at the entry of her chamber shee gave the canapie, with bels and all, to the Barons of the Ports according to their claim, with great thanks; then the maior of London, bearing his cuppe in his hande, with his brethren, went through the hall to their barge, and so did all other noblemen and gentlemen, for it was sixe of the clocke.”

Henry VIII's bed

Warrior Weasel
I've been thinking strongly about finishing the Henry VIII style gown this year and I have been collecting images about clothing in 1530's England.  I ran across this description of Henry VIII's bed and wondered how imposing it might have been to the women who shared it.  I

Bed of Henry VIII

Designs for Parsonage Houses, Alms Houses: Etc. Etc. with Examples of Gables, and Other Curious Remains of Old English Architecture by Thomas F. Hunt

I took a little side trip to see how I am doing on being able to read cooking manuscripts.  Not too bad!  At first I was a thinking whoa, this is too hard, but then I remembered that I have to practice before I can read these things.  I started an index for this, and got through the first 25 pages and the manuscript came to life!

There are several sausage recipes and I continue to bring them to the internet here with an entry from page 53.  I think this one is especially interesting for its precise finishing instructions.  You can see the original here:

(a lot is about a half ounce)

To make good Italian sausage three ways as follows:
Firstly, take 26 pounds of fatty meat
8 pounds of beef stomachs
2 hearts that weigh 3 pounds
3 lots ginger
1 lot crushed cloves
1 lot trisanet (cinnamon/sugar & varying spice based mixture)
1 lot mace
also take for each pound of meat 3 lots of salt, that is 102 lots---
more for each one 1/2 lots of pepper (that) is 17 lots
take thereunder also a glass(small) of wine take
in total to 2/3 of the meat one (part) must be a third
beef so is this this correct version of Italian sausage

For the second so you will make long Italian sausages
Take 12 pounds meat
28 lots salt
3 lots pepper
6 lots fennel

For the third if you want to make so that
they are lumpy
14 1/2 pounds of lean meat
2 pounds of diced bacon (fat)
2 hearts that should weigh 3 pounds
1 pound 8 lots ginger
1 lot ground cloves
2 lots trisanet
1 lot mace
8 lots pepper
2 nutmegs
there to a small glass of wine

Here follows the preparation of the above
stated sausage
Firstly, if you want to make sausage so must
one take the fat and lean meat that were listed
above and chop the same small next make for each
version its ingredients
mix well together then take the above or
if there is intestine and one fills therein then take a
needle with it stuff everything there in so that these stuff better
and thicker on top of itself then bind off all
securely and leg it in salt 40 hours then take
it out and hang in the chimney and make under them
a good smoke only a day until they dry and the
salt therein crusts then hang then in the kitchen
or in a place that has little warmth let hang for 2
months and lay then take oil
so they will each stay better longer and remain good 2 years
Read the German hereCollapse )

Sauerkraut history - lost in translation

This is taken from Das Ackerwerk by Lucii Columellae and Palladii (1536) - an ancient Roman text.  It is clear that it is a translation of the Latin text "De Re Rustica", and there is some difficulty with the translator identifying the original plants.    One of the big problems is that looking up some of the plant names in 16th century herbals give poisonous plants (note the *)!  However, there is a 1725 English version here, which sounds like it has translated the terms more reasonably:
But I note that it differs from the German (the English version has more words for one).  These may well be differences in how the original translators handled the text.  But at any rate, pickled cabbage seems to be of some antiquity.  It may be fun to look at the original latin and the French version.  Read the English version - it has interesting bits, including the manner of preparing the brine!

Which plants one lays in for each quarter of the year / and how the same should be marinated /
The Seventh Chapter

As now such that is ready to be prepared / one should in Spring (when day and night
are similar) plants for such usage are collected and held/
such as are / cabbage buds and stems / head cabbage / celery stalks / rue/
"horse fennel" with its stalk when it emerges/ flower from
wild parsnips / or also the cultivated parsnip buds /
the flowers from wild tarrgon when they have bolted / asparagus / rushes
pennyroyal / catmint / wild mangold / buttercups*/ and the tender buds
of fennel.  These things one may prepare in a singular way that is
that one takes two parts vinegar / and one part salt water.  But the flowers
of the byrony* / rushes / asparagus/ parsnips and catmint / these one
may especially lay in and sprinkle with salt and hold for two days in
the shade / until they become sweaty / then one lays them in / and if they
make too much moisture / then one washes them off with their own liquid
if not / one should pour over as much saltwater / and wash them / then one
presses the water back out / and lays each kind in its own dish and
pours the above written liquid over them of two parts vinegar and one part
saltwater / then one lays dried fennel that was gathered the previous autumn /
thereon / then one lays a weight on the greens so that they are pressed
beneath it / and the liquid goes over the greens.  When the "horse fennel" /
fennel (ferulam) and ordinary fennel / so lay it in the shade until it becomes
wilted / then pull from them all the leaves and wood / and if the stems are
larger than a thumb / so split them with a tube into 2 parts / and of the
flowers so that they are not too thick one should also pull them from one
another and part them / and then lay them in a dish / the above written liquid
poured over them / also sometimes spread well over it laser or silphium root /
and lastly cover it with dried fennel greens and weigh it down so the liquid goes
over it / cabbages / head cabbage / buttercups* and pennyroyal / one should
let them lay in the shade somewhat long until they become wilted / and then
marinate them like savory / thyme / tarragon.  Or rather lay tarragon only in salt water
without vinegar / then when one would have need of it / wash it with wine
or water / pour oil over it and eat it.  One may also marinate and keep green savory
and green thyme.

* poisonous

Sauerkraut history - don't eat too much!


Kurtze Beschreibung der Natur ... und Gebrauch in Speiß und Trank (1549)

Brassica - Leaf cabbage and head cabbage, leaf cabbage and
and head cabbage / are in Germany in ordinary kitchens/
especially for the manual laborers/ and the common
man / who [have] the largest hardest burden /and take it for daily
food / and grease their hungry stomachs / and as
in Bavaria / sometimes in one day / three or four times
cabbage or sauerkraut is taken / it gives an
unhealthy bad nourishment / and causes a
coarse thick melancholy blood / it ruins the face...

It goes on to tell that it creates fantastical dreams.

Next up some actual instructions for making sauerkraut and preserving leaf vegetables and how to properly prepare the salt water brine.  Part of the learning curve was understanding that there were some seeming 99 names for cabbage!

Sauerkraut History - more snippets

Deutsche SpeisekammerHere is a snippet from a poem about farmers with a reference to food storage:

For the winter they salt the cabbages in
dry pears  / and do smoke the onions

This appears from  Siben Bücher Von dem Feldbau vnd vollkom[m]ener bestellung eynes ordenlichen Mayerhofs oder Landguts (1580) by Charles Estienne. I will look and see if there is a French or English equivalent as another book by this author is also offered in multiple languages.

These are instructions for preparations of food for Winter storage carried out in Fall.  Salt was to be bought in summer, cheese and butter stored near in the pantry, the cabbages were "eingesaltzen" (salted), some beets were buried, some cabbage heads lay in various chambers, to be used when necessary.

In fact this whole entry about how to prepare food for the winter was pretty interesting.  I never knew that garlic and onions were both smoked for longevity.  This source is Deutsche Speisekammer (1550)

More sauerkraut history

A few more snippets

This particular poem in Paradeißgärtlein Darinnen die edleste vnnd fürnembste Kräuter nach jhrer Gestalt vnd Eigenschafft abcontrafeytet vnd mit zweyerley Wirckung Leiblich vn[d] Geistlich... Beschrieben sind (1588) about the virtues and uses of cabbage tells us that preserved (eingemacht) cabbage is a staple food for farmers.

In the morning and late in the evening
Preserved cabbage
fills the skins of the hungry farmer

In   the text in New Speisebüchlein, darinnen kurtzer Unterricht vom Essen und Trincken, auch von allerley Speisen und Getranck. - (Erffordt, Beck) 1588 tells us that sour cabbage kraut or compest is known in Germany.

Sauerkraut History Quest

I've been trying to document how sauerkraut was preserved in the 16th century.  Common sense says that it may be the same as is done today, but that information hasn't been forthcoming to my searches.  I'm going to start to collect references to its manufacture and storage.  One of the challenges is that the 16th century words may not be the modern ones!  Some of the words include kraut, kol, kohl, cappes, kappes, kappiß, kappißkraut.  Sauer can also be spelled saur or sawr too.  Often the word compost/kompost is also associated with sauerkraut and other preserved fruits and vegetables.  This word still has the same approximate meaning as the French Compote.  One of the French period equivalents for cabbage is cabus and a search for the word in the 16th century leads us to a little information about the German preservation of cabbage. Le grand propriétaire de toutes choses, très utile et profitable pour tenir le corps humain en santé

Cabbage is good in meat and in medicine, and especially in Germany and Lorraine one makes of it a compost that keeps a long time, and one eats it during Lent with vinegar or with mustard.

Here's a picture of a chou cabu from another French source, which doesn't mention preservation:

Dumplings from 1560

I was excited to find a cookbook that seems to be based on the Saxon region of Germany! Now I have clothing inventories and a cookbook for my persona. I was most excited to see a recipe for the town next door - Chicken from Zwickau. The oddest things make me happy.  It's called "Allerlei speisen vortreffliches"

Farmer's Dumplings from a 1560 Saxon Cookbook

Take pepper / a goodly portion of onions
to it / not too many / chop
them together / not too small/
melt a goodly portion of fat into it/
break into it two or three eggs/
and parsley / and do not make
it too thin with the eggs /
fat/ and take wheat flour /
also semolina a spoon full / that is not as much
as the flour / or instead put
bread thereto / happening to have
it / so it will be thick / make the
dough quite thick / as for small
meatballs / when the meat stock is boiling / lay
them in / let them boil [until] they are well joined ; they
should not be allowed to boil long / put fat
and eggs in it / otherwise they are
not good.
Warrior Weasel
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The Italian / and in the Provence in France / prepare Marzipan from honey
and almonds / in the following manner:  They take three pounds of fine white honey/
three egg yolks / beat it together / with a wooden / beater in a basin or
a small pan / and do this so long / until it is white as milk / put then the pan
on a glowing coal fire / and stir it without ceasng with a pestle so long / until that it
becomes seemlingly thick / then slide into it the shelled and ground sweet almonds / so much
that it becomes the necessary thickness / while the dough is still warm / slide it finally out
onto a marble stone / or such a nice smooth surface / and make marzipan from it.
Such food is admirably good for consumption  / and makes thick mucus eject.


Warrior Weasel

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